As filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on January 8, 2021

 

Registration No. 333-[●]

 

UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION

WASHINGTON D.C. 20549

____________________________

 

FORM S-3

 

REGISTRATION STATEMENT

UNDER

THE SECURITIES ACT OF 1933

____________________________

 

DPW HOLDINGS, INC.

(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)

 

Delaware   3679   94-1721931
(State or other jurisdiction of   (Primary Standard Industrial   (I.R.S. Employer
incorporation or organization)   Classification Code Number)   Identification No.)

 

11411 Southern Highlands Parkway, Suite 240

Las Vegas, NV 89141

(949) 444-5464

(Address, including zip code, and telephone number,

including area code, of principal executive offices)

 

Milton C. Ault III

Chairman and Chief Executive Officer

DPW Holdings, Inc.

11411 Southern Highlands Parkway, Suite 240

Las Vegas, NV 89141

(949) 444-5464

 

(Name, address, including zip code, and telephone number,

including area code, of agent for service)

 

Copies to:

 

Henry Nisser, Esq.

Executive Vice President and General Counsel

DPW Holdings, Inc.

100 Park Ave., Suite 1658A

New York, NY 10017

(646) 650-5044

Kenneth Schlesinger, Esq.

Spencer Feldman, Esq.

Olshan Frome Wolosky LLP

1325 Avenue of the Americas, 15th Floor

New York, NY 10019

(212) 451-2300

 

 

Approximate date of commencement of proposed sale to the public: From time to time after the effective date of this registration statement.

 

If the only securities being registered on this Form are being offered pursuant to dividend or interest reinvestment plans, please check the following box. o

 

If any of the securities being registered on this Form are to be offered on a delayed or continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415 under the Securities Act of 1933, other than securities offered only in connection with dividend or interest reinvestment plans, check the following box. x

 

   
 

 

If this Form is filed to register additional securities for an offering pursuant to Rule 462(b) under the Securities Act, please check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. o

 

If this Form is a post-effective amendment filed pursuant to Rule 462(c) under the Securities Act, check the following box and list the Securities Act registration statement number of the earlier effective registration statement for the same offering. o

 

If this Form is a registration statement pursuant to General Instruction I.D. or a post-effective amendment thereto that shall become effective upon filing with the Commission pursuant to Rule 462(e) under the Securities Act, check the following box. o

 

If this Form is a post-effective amendment to a registration statement filed pursuant to General Instruction I.D. filed to register additional securities or additional classes of securities pursuant to Rule 413(b) under the Securities Act, check the following box. o

 

Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and “emerging growth company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act:

 

Large accelerated filer o Accelerated filer o
Non-accelerated filer x Smaller reporting company x
  Emerging growth company o

 

If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided to Section 7(a)(2)(B) of the Securities Act. o

 

   
 

 

CALCULATION OF REGISTRATION FEE

 

Title of Each Class of
Securities to be Registered
  Amount to be
Registered (1) (2)
  Proposed Maximum
Offering Price
Per Unit
  Proposed Maximum
Aggregate Offering
Price (3)
   Amount of
Registration
Fee (4)
 
Common Stock, par value$0.001 per share            
Preferred Stock, par value $0.001 per share            
Senior or Subordinated Debt Securities            
Warrants              
Rights              
Units (5)            
Total  N/A  N/A  $200,000,000.00   $21,820.00 

 

(1)There are being registered under this registration statement such indeterminate number of shares of common stock and preferred stock; such indeterminate number of warrants to purchase common stock, preferred stock, and/or units; and such indeterminate number of units as may be sold by the registrant from time to time, which together shall have an aggregate initial offering price not to exceed $200,000,000. Any securities registered hereunder may be sold separately or as units with other securities registered hereunder. The securities registered hereunder also include such indeterminate number of shares of common stock and preferred stock, and warrants as may be issued upon conversion of or exchange for preferred stock, upon exercise of warrants; or pursuant to the anti-dilution provisions of any such securities. In addition, pursuant to Rule 416 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended (the “Securities Act”), the shares being registered hereunder include such indeterminate number of shares of common stock and preferred stock as may be issuable with respect to the shares being registered hereunder as a result of stock splits, stock dividends, or similar transactions.

 

(2)Not specified as to each class of securities to be registered pursuant to Form S-3 General Instruction II.D.

 

(3)The proposed maximum offering price per unit will be determined from time to time by the Registrant in connection with, and at the time of, the issuance of the securities and is not specified as to each class of security pursuant to General Instruction II.D. of Form S-3, as amended.

 

(4)Calculated pursuant to Rule 457(o) under the Securities Act based on the proposed maximum aggregate offering price of all securities listed.

 

(5)Each unit will represent an interest in two or more other securities, which may or may not be separable from one another.

 

 

 

The registrant hereby amends this registration statement on such date or dates as may be necessary to delay its effective date until the registrant shall file a further amendment which specifically states that this registration statement shall thereafter become effective in accordance with Section 8(a) of the Securities Act of 1933 or until the registration statement shall become effective on such date as the Securities and Exchange Commission, acting pursuant to said Section 8(a), may determine.

 

 

   
 

 

The information in this prospectus is not complete and may be changed. We may not sell these securities under this prospectus until the registration statement of which it is a part and filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission is effective. This prospectus is not an offer to sell these securities and it is not soliciting an offer to buy these securities in any state where the offer or sale is not permitted.

 

PRELIMINARY PROSPECTUS

 

SUBJECT TO COMPLETION, DATED JANUARY 8, 2021

 

 

 

 

$200,000,000

Common Stock

Preferred Stock

Debt Securities

Warrants

Rights

Units

 

We may offer and sell, from time to time in one or more offerings, any combination of common stock, preferred stock, debt securities, warrants, rights or units having an aggregate initial offering price not exceeding $200,000,000. The preferred stock, debt securities, warrants, rights and units may be convertible, exercisable or exchangeable for common stock or preferred stock or other securities of ours.

 

Each time we sell a particular class or series of securities, we will provide specific terms of the securities offered in a supplement to this prospectus.  The prospectus supplement may also add, update or change information in this prospectus.  You should read this prospectus and any prospectus supplement, as well as the documents incorporated by reference or deemed to be incorporated by reference into this prospectus, carefully before you invest in any securities.

 

This prospectus may not be used to offer or sell our securities unless accompanied by a prospectus supplement relating to the offered securities.

 

Our common stock is presently listed on the NYSE American under the symbol “DPW”.  On January 7, 2021, the last reported sale price of our common stock was $4.16.

 

These securities may be sold directly by us, through dealers or agents designated from time to time, to or through underwriters or dealers or through a combination of these methods on a continuous or delayed basis.  See “Plan of Distribution” in this prospectus.  We may also describe the plan of distribution for any particular offering of our securities in a prospectus supplement. If any agents, underwriters or dealers are involved in the sale of any securities in respect of which this prospectus is being delivered, we will disclose their names and the nature of our arrangements with them in a prospectus supplement. The net proceeds we expect to receive from any such sale will also be included in a prospectus supplement.

 

              An investment in our common stock involves a high degree of risk. You should review carefully the risks and uncertainties described under the heading “Risk Factors” contained herein on page 7 and in our Annual Report on Form 10-K/A for the year ended December 31, 2019, as well as our subsequently filed periodic and current reports, which we file with the Securities and Exchange Commission and which are incorporated by reference into the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part. You should read the entire prospectus carefully before you make your investment decision.

 

Neither the Securities and Exchange Commission nor any state securities commission has approved or disapproved of these securities or passed upon the adequacy or accuracy of this prospectus. Any representation to the contrary is a criminal offense.

 

This prospectus is dated January     , 2021

 

   
 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

    

Page

 

About this Prospectus    1
Disclosure Regarding Forward-Looking Statements    1
About the Company    4
Risk Factors    7
Use of Proceeds    30
The Securities We May Offer   30
Description of Capital Stock   31
Description of Debt Securities   32
Description of Warrants   39
Description of Rights    41
Description of Units   42
Plan of Distribution   42
Legal Matters    44
Experts    44
Where you can find more Information    44
Incorporation of Documents by Reference   44

 

 i 
 

 

ABOUT THIS PROSPECTUS

 

This prospectus is part of a shelf registration statement that we filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission (the “Commission”) using a “shelf” registration process. Under this shelf registration process, we may sell any combination of the securities described in this prospectus in one or more offerings from time to time having an aggregate initial offering price of $200,000,000. This prospectus provides you with a general description of the securities we may offer. Each time we offer securities, we will provide you with a prospectus supplement that describes the specific amounts, prices and terms of the securities we offer. The prospectus supplement also may add, update or change information contained in this prospectus. You should read carefully both this prospectus and any prospectus supplement together with additional information described below under the caption “Where You Can Find More Information.”

 

This prospectus does not contain all the information provided in the registration statement we filed with the Commission. You should read both this prospectus, including the section titled “Risk Factors,” and the accompanying prospectus supplement, together with the additional information described under the heading “Where You Can Find More Information.”

 

This prospectus may be supplemented from time to time to add, to update or change information in this prospectus. Any statement contained in this prospectus will be deemed to be modified or superseded for purposes of this prospectus to the extent that a statement contained in such prospectus supplement modifies or supersedes such statement. Any statement so modified will be deemed to constitute a part of this prospectus only as so modified, and any statement so superseded will be deemed not to constitute a part of this prospectus. You should rely only on the information contained or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus. We have not authorized any other person to provide you with different information. If anyone provides you with different or inconsistent information, you should not rely on it. No dealer, salesperson or other person is authorized to give any information or to represent anything not contained in this prospectus, any applicable prospectus supplement or any related free writing prospectus. This prospectus is not an offer to sell securities, and it is not soliciting an offer to buy securities, in any jurisdiction where the offer or sale is not permitted. You should assume that the information appearing in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement, as well as information we have filed with the SEC that is incorporated by reference, is accurate as of the date on the front of those documents only, regardless of the time of delivery of this prospectus or any applicable prospectus supplement, or any sale of a security. Our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects may have changed since those dates.

 

No person is authorized in connection with this prospectus to give any information or to make any representations about us, the securities offered hereby or any matter discussed in this prospectus, other than the information and representations contained in this prospectus. If any other information or representation is given or made, such information or representation may not be relied upon as having been authorized by us.

 

This prospectus contains summaries of certain provisions contained in some of the documents described herein, but reference is made to the actual documents for complete information. All of the summaries are qualified in their entirety by the actual documents. Copies of some of the documents referred to herein have been filed, will be filed or will be incorporated by reference as exhibits to the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, and you may obtain copies of those documents as described below under “Where You Can Find More Information.”

 

For investors outside the United States: Neither we nor any Underwriter has done anything that would permit this offering or possession or distribution of this prospectus in any jurisdiction where action for that purpose is required, other than in the United States. You are required to inform yourselves about and to observe any restrictions relating to this offering and the distribution of this prospectus.

 

Unless otherwise stated or the context requires otherwise, references to “DPW,” the “Company,” “we,” “us” or “our” are to DPW Holdings, Inc. and its subsidiaries. 

 

DISCLOSURE REGARDING FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS

 

This prospectus and the documents incorporated by reference in it contain forward-looking statements regarding future events and our future results that are subject to the safe harbors created under the Securities Act of 1933 and the Securities Exchange Act of 1934. All statements other than statements of historical facts are statements that could be deemed forward-looking statements. These statements are based on our expectations, beliefs, forecasts, intentions and future strategies and are signified by the words “expects,” “anticipates,” “intends,” “believes” or similar language. In addition, any statements that refer to projections of our future financial performance, our anticipated growth, trends in our business and other characterizations of future events or circumstances are forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements are only predictions and are subject to risks, uncertainties and assumptions that are difficult to predict, including those identified above, under “Risk Factors” and elsewhere in this prospectus. Therefore, actual results may differ materially and adversely from those expressed in any forward-looking statements. All forward-looking statements included in this prospectus are based on information available to us on the date of this prospectus and speak only as of the date hereof.

 

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We disclaim any current intention to update our “forward-looking statements,” and the estimates and assumptions within them, at any time or for any reason. In particular, the following factors, among others, could cause actual results to differ materially from those described in the “forward-looking statements”:

 

our continued operating and net losses in the future;

 

our need for additional capital for our operations and to fulfill our business plans;

 

the effect of COVID-19;

 

dependency on our ability, and the ability of our contract manufacturers, to timely procure electronic components;

 

the potential ineffectiveness of our strategic focus on power supply solution competencies;

 

dependency on developer partners for the development of some of our custom design products;

 

dependency on sales of our legacy products for a meaningful portion of our revenues;

 

the possible failure of our custom product development efforts to result in products which meet customers’ needs or such customers’ failure to accept such new products;

 

our ability to attract, retain and motivate key personnel;

 

dependence on a few major customers;

 

dependence on the electronic equipment industry;

 

reliance on third-party subcontract manufacturers to manufacture certain aspects of the products sold by us;

 

reduced profitability as a result of increased competition, price erosion and product obsolescence within the industry;

 

our ability to establish, maintain and expand its OEM relationships and other distribution channels;

 

our inability to procure necessary key components for its products, or the purchase of excess or the wrong inventory;

 

variations in operating results from quarter to quarter;

 

dependence on international sales and the impact of certain governmental regulatory restrictions on such international sales and operations; and

 

the risk factors included in our most recent filings with the SEC, including, but not limited to, our Forms 10-K and 10-Q. All filings are also available on our website at www.dpwholdings.com.

 

 

ABOUT THE COMPANY

 

This summary highlights selected information contained in other parts of this prospectus. Because it is a summary, it does not contain all of the information that you should consider in making your investment decision. Before investing in our securities, you should read the entire prospectus carefully, including the information set forth under the heading “Risk Factors.”

 

 Company Overview

 

DPW Holdings, Inc. is a diversified holding company that owns operating subsidiaries and divisions engaged in a number of diversified business operations including the defense, aerospace, commercial, health/medical, finance and commercial lending sectors. Our largest subsidiary is Gresham Worldwide, which provides advanced bespoke military and commercial applications. We began implementing our strategy in late 2016 led by our Chairman and CEO Milton “Todd” Ault, III and Vice Chairman and President William B. Horne. DPW is presently led by an Executive Committee, the members of which are Messrs. Ault and Horne and Henry Nisser, our Executive Vice President and General Counsel.

 

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We operate as a holding company with operations conducted primarily through our subsidiaries. We conduct our activities in a manner so as not to be deemed an investment company under the Investment Company Act of 1940, as amended (the “Investment Company Act”). Generally, this means that we do not invest or intend to invest in securities as our primary business and that no more than 40% of our total assets will be invested in investment securities as such term is defined in the Investment Company Act. Pursuant to the Investment Company Act, companies such as our subsidiary Digital Power Lending, LLC (“DP Lending”) are excluded from the definition of an investment company since its business consists of making small loans and industrial banking. We also maintain a large investment in Avalanche International, Corp., which does business as MTIX International.

 

Originally, we were primarily a solution-driven organization that designed, developed, manufactured and sold high-grade customized and flexible power system solutions for the medical, military, telecom and industrial markets. Although we are actively seeking growth through acquisitions, we will continue to focus on high-grade and custom product designs for the commercial, medical and military/defense markets, where customers demand high density, high efficiency and ruggedized products to meet the harshest and/or military mission critical operating conditions.

 

We have operations located in Europe through our wholly-owned subsidiary, Gresham Power Electronics (formerly Digital Power Limited) (“Gresham Power”), located in Salisbury, England. Gresham Power designs, manufactures and sells power products and system solutions mainly for the European marketplace, including power conversion, power distribution equipment, DC/AC (direct current/active current) inverters and UPS (uninterrupted power supply) products. Gresham Power is specialized in the field of naval power distribution products, as well as our wholly owned subsidiary Relec Electronics (“Relec”) located in Dorset, England. Relec was established in 1978 with the aim of providing specialist power conversion and display products to support professionals in the electronics industry. Relec’s aerospace background means it consistently and meticulously delivers high performance and robust power and display solutions. Relec exerts its utmost effort to customize a product or a feature to achieve optimum performance and service delivery. Relec continues to be guided by this philosophy and currently operates in specific fields, specializing in AC-DC Power Supplies, DC-DC Converters, Displays and EMC Filters.

 

 Recent Events

 

Reorganization of Our Corporate Structure

 

Commencing in October and continuing through July 2020, we reorganized our corporate structure pursuant to a series of transactions among our company and our directly and indirectly-owned subsidiaries. The purpose of the reorganization was to align our various businesses by the products and services that constitute the majority of each subsidiaries’ revenues. As a result of the foregoing transactions, our corporate structure is as follows:

 

 

 

 - 3 - 
 

 

On January 7, 2020, we formed Coolisys Technologies Corp. (“CTC”) in order to hold Digital Power Corporation. Coolisys is presently owned by GWW and owns Microphase Corporation, Gresham Power Electronics, Relec and Enertec Systems. We may dispose of Coolisys in the future, leaving GWW as the direct owner of the four foregoing subsidiaries.

 

Other Matters

 

In January 2018, we formed Super Crypto Mining, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary, which recently changed its name to Digital Farms, Inc. (“DFI”). DFI was established to operate our newly formed cryptocurrency business, which mined a variety of digital currency for our own account. These cryptocurrencies include Bitcoin, Litecoin and Ethereum. We made the decision to discontinue DFI’s operations in the first quarter of 2020. 

 

On May 23, 2018, DP Lending entered into and closed a securities purchase agreement with I. AM, Inc. (“I. AM”). I. AM’s operations were discontinued in the first quarter of 2020 and it is currently in bankruptcy proceedings. 

 

On October 2, 2020, we entered into an At-The-Market Issuance Sales Agreement (the “Sales Agreement”) with Ascendiant Capital Markets, LLC to sell shares of common stock having an aggregate offering price of up to $8,975,000 from time to time, through an “at the market offering” program (the “2020 ATM Offering”). On December 1, 2020, we filed an amendment to the prospectus supplement with the SEC to increase the amount of common stock that may be offered and sold in the ATM Offering, as amended under the Sales Agreement to $40,000,000 in the aggregate, inclusive of the up to $8,975,000 in shares of common stock previously sold in the 2020 ATM Offering. The offer and sale of shares of common stock from the 2020 ATM Offering was made pursuant to our effective “shelf” registration statement on Form S-3 and an accompanying base prospectus contained therein (Registration Statement No. 333-222132) which became effective on January 11, 2018. Through December 31, 2020, we had received gross proceeds of $39,978,350 through the sale of 12,582,000 shares of common stock from the 2020 ATM Offering. The 2020 ATM Offering was terminated on December 31, 2020.

 

On August 5, 2020, we received $2,000,000 from Esousa Holdings, LLC (“Esousa”) and on October 22, 2020, we issued to Esousa a promissory note in the principal face amount of $2,000,000, with an interest rate of 13%. The outstanding principal face amount, plus any accrued and unpaid interest, is due by November 3, 2020, or as otherwise provided in accordance with the terms set forth therein. In connection therewith, we delivered to Esousa a warrant to purchase 729,927 shares of common stock at an exercise price of $3.01. The exercise of the warrant is subject to approval of the NYSE American. The foregoing debt was paid off in December of 2020.

 

On October 27, 2020, we issued to Esousa two unsecured promissory notes in the aggregate principal face amount of $1,200,000, of which $850,000 was received prior to September 30, 2020. The principal amount of $850,000 of the first note dated October 27, 2020, together with all accrued unpaid interest at an annual rate of 14%, was due and payable on December 28, 2020. The principal amount of $350,000 of the second note dated October 27, 2020, together with all accrued unpaid interest at an annual rate of 14%, was due and payable on January 7, 2021. Both unsecured promissory notes were repaid on December 14, 2020. In connection with the two promissory notes, we delivered to the Esousa (i) a warrant dated October 27, 2020, to purchase 425,000 shares of common stock at an exercise price of $2.20, and (ii) a warrant dated October 27, 2020, to purchase 148,936 shares of common stock at an exercise price of $2.59. The exercise of the warrants is subject to approval of the NYSE American.

 

On November 9, 2020, our wholly-owned subsidiary Gresham Worldwide, Inc. (“GWW”) entered into a stock purchase agreement with Tabard Holdings Inc., a Delaware corporation and wholly owned subsidiary of GWW (“Tabard”), the legal and beneficial owners (the “Sellers”) of 100% of the issued shares in the capital of Relec Electronics Ltd., a corporation organized under the laws of England and Wales (“Relec”), and Peter Lappin, in his capacity as the representative of the Sellers.  Upon the terms and subject to the conditions set forth in the stock purchase agreement, Tabard agreed to acquire Relec pursuant to the stock purchase agreement whereby the Sellers will sell to Tabard (i) 100% of the issued shares of Relec. The purchase price is approximately £3,000,000 plus an amount equal to Relec’s cash balance immediately prior to closing of the acquisition. The acquisition of Relec was consummated on November 30, 2020.

 

On November 19, 2020, we issued to Esousa and two other institutional investors unsecured promissory notes in the aggregate principal face amount of $2,250,000, with an interest rate of 12%. The outstanding principal face amount, plus any accrued and unpaid interest, was due by February 18, 2021, or as otherwise provided in accordance with the terms set forth therein. These unsecured promissory notes were repaid on December 28, 2020. In connection therewith, we delivered warrants to purchase an aggregate of 1,323,531 shares of common stock at an exercise price of $1.87, subject to adjustments. Exercise of the warrants is subject to approval of the NYSE American.

 

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On November 20, 2020, our former counsel, Sichenzia Ross Ference LLP as successor to Sichenzia Ross Ference Kesner LLP (“SRF”) filed a Complaint (the “Complaint”) in the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York against us and two of our subsidiaries (collectively, the “Defendants”), in an action captioned Sichenzia Ross Ference LLP as successor to Sichenzia Ross Ference Kesner LLP v. Digital Power Corporation, et al., Case No. 20-CV-09811-JGK. The Complaint asserts claims for breach of contract, account stated, unjust enrichment and quantum meruit, against the Defendants, and seeks monetary damages in the amount of $2,558,121.89 plus interest thereon. On January 4, 2021, the Defendants filed a motion for a more definite statement (the “Motion”). The Court has scheduled a pre-motion conference for January 11, 2021 in connection with the Motion. As of December 31, 2020, approximately $2.3 million of the disputed legal fees were included in accounts payable. We intend to vigorously defend against the claims asserted against us and are currently assessing whether we will assert any counterclaims against SRF in this action.

 

On December 20, 2020, our wholly owned subsidiary Alliance Cloud Services, LLC (“ACS”), entered into a Real Estate Sale Contract (the “Sale Contract”) with Prairie Ronde Realty Company, a Michigan corporation (the “Seller”). Pursuant to the Sale Contract, ACS will acquire the Property described below for a purchase price of $3,900,000, subject to proration in accordance with the Sale Contract. The Property consists of a parcel of land consisting of approximately 34.52 acres, commonly known as 415 East Prairie Ronde Street, Dowagiac, MI 49047, including any buildings, improvements and appurtenances thereon (collectively, with the parcel of land, the “Real Property”) and the following: (i) all appurtenances pertaining to the Real Property; (ii) certain personal property as set forth in the Sale Contract; (iii) all of the Seller’s right, title and interest in and to all leases and service contracts, which ACS will assume as of the closing date of January 29, 2021; and (vi) all assignable (without consent) permits and warranties.

 

Settlement of Derivative Litigation

 

On February 24, 2020, we entered into a definitive settlement agreement (the “Settlement Agreement”) intended to settle the previously disclosed derivative litigation captioned Ethan Young and Greg Young, Derivatively on Behalf of Nominal Defendant, DPW Holdings, Inc. v. Milton C. Ault, III, Amos Kohn, William B. Horne, Jeff Bentz, Mordechai Rosenberg, Robert O. Smith, and Kristine Ault and DPW Holdings, Inc., as the nominal defendant (Case No. 18-cv-6587) (as amended on March 11, 2019, the “Amended Complaint”) against us and certain of our officers and directors pending in the United States District Court for the Central District of California (the “Court”). As previously disclosed, the Amended Complaint alleges violations including breaches of fiduciary duties and unjust enrichment claims based on the previously pled transactions.

 

On April 15, 2020, the Court issued an Order (the “Order”) approving a Motion for Preliminary Approval of Settlement in the Derivative Action. On July 16, 2020, the Court issued an Order (the “Final Order”) approving a Motion for Final Approval of Settlement in the Derivative Action filed against DPW as a Nominal Defendant and its directors who served on its board of directors on July 31, 2018 who were not dismissed from the action as a result of the Court’s partial grant of the Motion.

 

In accordance with the terms of the Final Order, the Board has adopted certain resolutions and amendments to our committee charters and/or bylaws, to ensure adherence to certain corporate governance policies (collectively, the “Reforms”). The Final Order further provides that such Reforms shall remain in effect for a period of no less than five (5) years and shall be subject to any of the following: (a) a determination by a majority of the independent directors that the Reforms are no longer in our best interest, including, but not limited to, due to circumstances making the Reforms no longer applicable, feasible, or available on commercially reasonable terms, or (b) modifications which we reasonably believe are required by applicable law or regulation.

 

In connection with the Settlement Agreement, the parties agreed to a payment of attorneys’ fees in the amount of $600,000, which sum was paid by our directors & officers liability insurance. The Settlement Agreement contains no admission of wrongdoing.

 

We have always maintained and continue to believe that neither we nor our current or former directors engaged in any wrongdoing or otherwise committed any violation of federal or state securities laws or any other laws or regulations.

 

Impact of Coronavirus on Our Operations

 

On March 16, 2020, to try and mitigate the spread of the novel coronavirus, San Diego County health officials issued orders mandating that all restaurants must end dine-in services. As a result of these temporary closures by the San Diego County health officials and the deteriorating business conditions at both our cryptocurrency mining and restaurant businesses, management concluded that discontinuing these operations was ultimately in our best interest. Although we have ceased operations at Digital Farms, since the assets and operations have not yet been abandoned, sold or distributed, these assets do not yet meet the requirement for presentation as discontinued operations. However, management determined that the permanent closing of the restaurant operations met the criteria for presentation as discontinued operations.

 

In March 2020, the World Health Organization declared the outbreak of a novel coronavirus (“COVID-19”) as a pandemic which continues to spread throughout the United States and the World. We are monitoring the outbreak of COVID-19 and the related business and travel restrictions and changes to behavior intended to reduce its spread, and its impact on operations, financial position, cash flows, inventory, supply chains, customer purchasing trends, customer payments, and the industry in general, in addition to the impact on our employees. Due to the rapid development and fluidity of this situation, the magnitude and duration of the pandemic and its impact on our operations and liquidity is uncertain as of the date of this prospectus.

 

However, our business has been disrupted and materially adversely affected by the recent outbreak of COVID-19. We are still assessing our business operations and system supports and the impact COVID-19 may have on our results and financial condition, but there can be no assurance that this analysis will enable us to avoid part or all of any impact from the spread of COVID-19 or its consequences, including downturns in business sentiment generally or in our sectors in particular.

 

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Our operations are located in Alameda County, CA, Orange County, CA, Fairfield County, CT, the United Kingdom, Israel and members of our senior management work in Seattle, WA and New York, NY. We have been following the recommendations of local health authorities to minimize exposure risk for our employees, including the temporary closures of our offices and having employees work remotely to the extent possible, which has to an extent adversely affected their efficiency. California and the UK recently reinstituted a second round of stay-at-home orders and lockdowns, respectively. For more information, see “Risk Factors – We face business disruption and related risks resulting from the recent outbreak of the novel coronavirus . . . .”

 

Corporate Information

 

Our corporate name is DPW Holdings, Inc. for both legal and commercial purposes. Our principal address is 201 Shipyard Way, Suite E, Newport Beach, CA 92663. Our phone number is (949) 444-5464. Our website is www.dpwholdings.com. The information on our website does not constitute part of this prospectus.  We have included our website address as a factual reference and do not intend it to be an active link to our website.

 

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RISK FACTORS

 

An investment in our securities is speculative and involves a high degree of risk. Our business, financial condition or results of operations could be adversely affected by any of these risks. You should carefully consider the risks described below and those risks set forth in the reports that we file with the SEC and that we incorporate by reference into this prospectus, before deciding to invest in our securities. The risks and uncertainties we have described are not the only ones we face. Additional risks and uncertainties not presently known to us or that we currently deem immaterial may also affect our operations. Past financial performance may not be a reliable indicator of future performance, and historical trends should not be used to anticipate results or trends in future periods. If any of these risks actually occurs, our business, business prospects, financial condition or results of operations could be seriously harmed. This could cause the trading price of our shares of common stock to decline, resulting in a loss of all or part of your investment. Please also read carefully the section above entitled “Disclosure Regarding Forward-Looking Statements.”

 

Risks Related to Our Company

 

We have historically incurred significant losses and our financial situation creates doubt whether we will continue as a going concern.

 

We have historically experienced operating and net losses and anticipate continuing to experience such losses in the future. For the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, we had an operating loss of $26,941,797 and $19,605,456 and net losses of $32,913,412 and $32,233,881, respectively. As of December 31, 2019 and 2018, we had a working capital deficiency of $19,150,075 and $18,445,302, respectively. There are no assurances that we will be able to achieve a level of revenues adequate to generate sufficient cash flow from operations or obtain additional financing through private placements, public offerings and/or bank financing necessary to support our working capital requirements. To the extent that funds generated from any private placements, public offerings and/or bank financing are insufficient, we will have to raise additional working capital. No assurance can be given that additional financing will be available, or if available, will be on acceptable terms. These conditions raise substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern. If adequate working capital is not available we may be forced to discontinue operations, which would cause investors to lose their entire investment.

 

We expect to continue to incur losses for the foreseeable future and need to raise additional capital to continue business development initiatives and to support our working capital requirements. However, if we are unable to raise additional capital, we may be required to curtail operations and take additional measures to reduce costs, including reducing our workforce, eliminating outside consultants and reducing legal fees in order to conserve cash in amounts sufficient to sustain operations and meet our obligations. As a result of these financing uncertainties, during the year ended December 31, 2019, we recognized that our dependence on ongoing capital requirements to fund our operations raise substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern. Our ongoing capital requirements have only increased since then, meaning that substantial doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern remains and will likely do so for the foreseeable future.

 

We will need to raise additional capital to fund our operations in furtherance of our business plan.

 

Until we are profitable, we will need to quickly raise additional capital in order to fund our operations in furtherance of our business plan. The proposed financing may include shares of common stock, shares of preferred stock, warrants to purchase shares of common stock or preferred stock, debt securities, units consisting of the foregoing securities, equity investments from strategic development partners or some combination of each. Any additional equity financings may be financially dilutive to, and will be dilutive from an ownership perspective to our stockholders, and such dilution may be significant based upon the size of such financing. Additionally, we cannot assure that such funding will be available on a timely basis, in needed quantities, or on terms favorable to us, if at all.

 

We have a certain amount of indebtedness. This indebtedness and the covenants contained in our loan documents with senior creditors substantially limit our financial and operating flexibility.

 

We have entered into a transaction document, pursuant to which we are constrained by certain security and similar agreements (the “Transaction Documents”), with a senior lender (the “Senior Lender”). These Transaction Documents grant priority security interests in all of our assets to the Senior Lender. Such Transaction Documents contain restrictions that substantially limit our financial flexibility. These Transaction Documents place limits on our ability to (i) incur additional indebtedness even if such indebtedness is subordinated to the debt instruments issued to the Senior Lenders or conduct an equity financing, and (ii) grant security to third persons, among other matters. These restrictions limit the Company’s ability to finance its future operations and capital needs. Absent the consent of the Senior Lender, we would be unable to, among other things, obtain additional debt to raise additional capital, implement our business strategy, establish corporate infrastructure and in any other way fund the development of our business.

 

 - 7 - 
 

 

We face business disruption and related risks resulting from the continuing impact of the novel coronavirus (“COVID-19”), which could have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations and curtail our ability to raise financing.

 

Our business has been disrupted and materially adversely affected by the recent outbreak of COVID-19. As a result of measures imposed by the governments in affected regions, businesses and schools have been suspended due to quarantines intended to contain this outbreak and many people have been forced to work from home in those areas. The spread of COVID-19 from China to other countries has resulted in the Director General of the World Health Organization declaring the outbreak of COVID-19 as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern, based on the advice of the Emergency Committee under the International Health Regulations (2005), and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the U.S. issued a warning on February 25, 2020 regarding the likely spread of COVID-19 to the U.S. While the COVID-19 outbreak is still in its early stages, international stock markets have begun to reflect the uncertainty associated with the slow-down in the American, Israeli and UK economies and the reduced levels of international travel experienced since the beginning of January and the significant decline in the Dow Industrial Average at the end of February 2020 was largely attributed to the effects of COVID-19. We are still assessing our business operations and system supports and the impact COVID-19 may have on our results and financial condition, but there can be no assurance that this analysis will enable us to avoid part or all of any impact from the spread of COVID-19 or its consequences, including downturns in business sentiment generally or in our sectors in particular.

 

Our operations are located in Alameda County, CA, Orange County, CA, Fairfield County, CT, the United Kingdom, Israel and members of our senior management work in Seattle, WA and New York, NY, which is also the location of the offices of the Company’s independent auditor. We have been following the recommendations of local health authorities to minimize exposure risk for its employees for the past several weeks, including the temporary closures of our offices and having employees work remotely to the extent possible, which has to an extent adversely affected their efficiency.

 

Updates by business unit are as follows:

 

DPW Holdings’ corporate headquarters, located in Newport Beach, CA, has begun working remotely, based on the occupancy and social distancing order from the Orange County Health Officer (http://www.ochealthinfo.com/phs/about/epidasmt/epi/dip/prevention/novel_coronavirus). The headquarters staff has tested the secure remote access systems and technology infrastructure to adjust working arrangements for its employees and believes it has adequate internal communications system and can remain operational with a remote staff.

 

Coolisys Technologies Corp., currently located in Milpitas, CA, decreased the number of its employees working at its prior site in Fremont, CA for 14 weeks as a result of the Alameda County Public Health Department’s order to cease all activities at facilities located within the County.

 

Microphase shut down its Shelton, CT production facility for a week in early December as a result of positive COVID-19 tests among its employees for deep cleaning and is required to have all workers tested before gradually resuming operations at the start of 2021. Microphase continues to follow CDC guidelines for social distancing, face coverings and heightened sanitizing to keep the workforce safe and healthy. Microphase has strictly limited access to the facility and mandated that all employees minimize exposure to the others. All Microphase employees who can work from home will do so while COVID-19 levels remain high in the surrounding communities. Microphase management is working with state and federal authorities to get all employees vaccinated on a priority basis as “essential workers” whom the U.S. Department of Defense have officially designated as “critical infrastructure workforce” as part of the “defense industrial base.”

 

Gresham Power Electronics shut down production operations in its Salisbury, UK facility from mid-March 2020 through June 2020 before resuming production until a subsequent shutdown in November 2020. Production operations will remain closed down with the current lockdown until mid-February. However, engineers, back office staff and management have worked from home throughout the pandemic period and continue to do so now. The pandemic has delayed contract actions and other customer decision making, but Gresham Power expects these delays only to defer orders and business to rebound strongly with pent up demand in the latter half of 2021.

 

Relec has, notwithstanding the lockdown in the UK, experienced no COVID-19 related disruptions and continues normal operations. All who can work from home do so. Others who must work at the Wareham site to move product or access systems continue to do so under strict safety protocols with face coverings, social distancing and heightened attention to sanitization. The principal impact on Relec’s operations has come from deferral of some orders and modest decrease in revenue year over year. Relec expects to business to rebound and resume a steady growth pattern in Q3 2021.

 

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Enertec Systems 2001 Ltd., located in Karmiel, Israel, has been granted a waiver by the Israeli government to remain open to complete key projects that impact national security. Approximately 50% of the Enertec workforce is working remotely.

 

Due to the unprecedented market conditions domestically and internationally, and the effect COVID-19 has had and will continue to have on the Company’s operations and financial performance, the extent of which is not currently known, the Company is temporarily suspending guidance for 2020. We will monitor the situation rigorously and provide business updates as circumstances warrant and resume providing guidance on our business when management believes that such information would be both reliable and substantively informative.

 

The duration and extent of the impact from the COVID-19 pandemic depends on future developments that cannot be accurately predicted at this time, such as the severity and transmission rate of the virus, the extent and effectiveness of containment actions and the impact of these and other factors on our employees, customers, partners and vendors. If we are not able to respond to and manage the impact of such events effectively, our business will be harmed.

 

As noted above, we rely to a great extent on external financing to fund our operations. The outbreak of COVD-19 has had a materially adverse impact on our ability to raise financing for our operations. Unless investors’ outlook improves dramatically in the near future, it will further inhibit our ability to raise the funds we need to sustain our operations. No assurance can be given that additional financing will be available, or if available, will be on acceptable terms.

 

 Our limited operating history makes it difficult to evaluate our future business prospects and to make decisions based on our historical performance.

 

Although our executive officers have been engaged in the industries in which we operate for varying degrees of time, we did not begin operations of our current business until recently. We have a very limited operating history in our current form, which makes it difficult to evaluate our business on the basis of historical operations. As a consequence, it is difficult, if not impossible, to forecast our future results based upon our historical data. Reliance on our historical results may not be representative of the results we will achieve, and for certain areas in which we operate, principally those unrelated to defense contracting, will not be indicative at all. Because of the uncertainties related to our lack of historical operations, we may be hindered in our ability to anticipate and timely adapt to increases or decreases in sales, product costs or expenses. If we make poor budgetary decisions as a result of unreliable historical data, we could be less profitable or incur losses, which may result in a decline in our stock price.

 

We have an evolving business model, which increases the complexity of our business.

 

Our business model has evolved in the past and continues to do so. In prior years we have added additional types of services and product offerings and in some cases we have modified or discontinued those offerings. We intend to continue to try to offer additional types of products or services, and we do not know whether any of them will be successful. From time to time we have also modified aspects of our business model relating to our product mix. We do not know whether these or any other modifications will be successful. The additions and modifications to our business have increased the complexity of our business and placed significant strain on our management, personnel, operations, systems, technical performance, financial resources, and internal financial control and reporting functions. Future additions to or modifications of our business are likely to have similar effects. Further, any new business or website we launch that is not favorably received by the market could damage our reputation or our brand. The occurrence of any of the foregoing could have a material adverse effect on our business.

 

We are a holding company whose subsidiaries are given a certain degree of independence and our failure to integrate our subsidiaries may adversely affect our financial condition.

 

We have given our subsidiary companies and their executives a certain degree of independence in decision-making. On the one hand, this independence may increase the sense of ownership at all levels, on the other hand it has also increased the difficulty of the integration of operation and management, which has resulted in increased difficulty of management integration. In the event we are not able to successfully manage our subsidiaries this will result in operating difficulties and have a negative impact on our business.

 

We and our independent auditors have expressed doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern. If we do not continue as a going concern, investors will lose their entire investment.

 

In its report on our financial statements included in our Annual Report for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019, our independent auditors have expressed doubt about our ability to continue as a going concern. Our ability to continue as a going concern is an issue raised as a result of ongoing operating losses and a lack of financing commitments then in place to meet expected cash requirements. Our ability to continue as a going concern is subject to our ability to generate a profit and/or obtain necessary funding from outside sources, including obtaining additional funding from the sale of our securities, increasing sales or obtaining loans and grants from various financial institutions where possible. If we do not continue as a going concern, investors will lose their entire investment.

 

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We received an order and a subpoena from the SEC in the investigation now known as “In the Matter of DPW Holdings, Inc.,” the consequences of which are unknown.

 

We received an order and related subpoena from the SEC that stated that the staff of the SEC is conducting an investigation now known as “In the Matter of DPW Holdings, Inc.,” and that the subpoena was issued as part of an investigation as to whether we and certain of our officers, directors, employees, partners, subsidiaries and/or affiliates, and/or other persons or entities, directly or indirectly, violated certain provisions of the Securities Act and the Exchange Act, in connection with the offer and sale of our securities. Although the order states that the SEC may have information relating to such alleged violations, the subpoena expressly provides that the inquiry is not to be construed as an indication by the SEC or its staff that any violations of the federal securities laws have occurred. We have produced documents in response to the subpoena. The SEC may in the future require us to produce additional documents or information, or seek testimony from other members of our management team.

 

We are unaware of the scope or timing of the SEC’s investigation. As a result, we do not know how the SEC’s investigation is proceeding, when the investigation will be concluded. We also are unable to predict what action, if any, might be taken in the future by the SEC or its staff as a result of the matters that are the subject to its investigation or what impact, if any, the cost of continuing to respond to subpoenas might have on our financial position, results of operations, or cash flows. We have not established any provision for losses in respect of this matter In addition, complying with any such future requests by the SEC for documents or testimony could distract the time and attention of our officers and directors or divert our resources away from ongoing business matters. This investigation could result in significant legal expenses, the diversion of management’s attention from our business, damage to our business and reputation, and could subject us to a wide range of remedies, including an enforcement action by the SEC. There can be no assurance that any final resolution of this and any similar matters will not have a material adverse effect on our financial condition or results of operations.

 

 Our inability to successfully integrate new acquisitions could adversely affect our combined business; our operations are widely disbursed.

 

Our growth strategy through acquisitions is subject to various risks. On June 2, 2017, we acquired a majority interest in Microphase and on May 23, 2018 we acquired Enertec Systems 2001 Ltd. (“Enertec”). Further, on November 30, 2020, Gresham Worldwide acquired Relec Electronics Ltd. from its present shareholders. Our strategy and business plan are dependent on our ability to successfully integrate Microphase’s, Enertec’s and our other acquired entities’ operations. In addition, while we are based in Newport Beach, CA, Microphase’s operations are located in Shelton, Connecticut, Enertec’s operations are located in Karmiel, Israel and Gresham Power’s operations are located in Salisbury, England. These distant locations and others that we may become involved with in the future will stretch our resources and management time. Further, failure to quickly and adequately integrate all of these operations and personnel could adversely affect our combined business and our ability to achieve our objectives and strategy. No assurance can be given that we will realize synergies in the areas we currently operate.

 

If we make any additional acquisitions, they may disrupt or have a negative impact on our business.

 

We have plans to eventually make additional acquisitions beyond Microphase, Enertec and Relec. Whenever we make acquisitions, we could have difficulty integrating the acquired companies’ personnel and operations with our own. In addition, the key personnel of the acquired business may not be willing to work for us. We cannot predict the effect expansion may have on our core business. Regardless of whether we are successful in making an acquisition, the negotiations could disrupt our ongoing business, distract our management and employees and increase our expenses. In addition to the risks described above, acquisitions are accompanied by a number of inherent risks, including, without limitation, the following:

 

difficulty of integrating acquired products, services or operations;

 

potential disruption of the ongoing businesses and distraction of our management and the management of acquired companies;

 

difficulty of incorporating acquired rights or products into our existing business;

 

difficulties in disposing of the excess or idle facilities of an acquired company or business and expenses in maintaining such facilities;

 

difficulties in maintaining uniform standards, controls, procedures and policies;

 

 - 10 - 
 

 

potential impairment of relationships with employees and customers as a result of any integration of new management personnel;

 

potential inability or failure to achieve additional sales and enhance our customer base through cross-marketing of the products to new and existing customers;

 

effect of any government regulations which relate to the business acquired; and

 

potential unknown liabilities associated with acquired businesses or product lines, or the need to spend significant amounts to retool, reposition or modify the marketing and sales of acquired products or the defense of any litigation, whether or not successful, resulting from actions of the acquired company prior to our acquisition.  

 

Our business could be severely impaired if and to the extent that we are unable to succeed in addressing any of these risks or other problems encountered in connection with these acquisitions, many of which cannot be presently identified, these risks and problems could disrupt our ongoing business, distract our management and employees, increase our expenses and adversely affect our results of operations.

 

No assurance can be given as to the successful expansion of our operations.

 

Our significant increase in the scope and the scale of our operations, including the hiring of additional personnel, has resulted in significantly higher operating expenses. We anticipate that our operating expenses will continue to increase. Expansion of our operations may also make significant demands on our management, finances and other resources. Our ability to manage the anticipated future growth, should it occur, will depend upon a significant expansion of our accounting and other internal management systems and the implementation and subsequent improvement of a variety of systems, procedures and controls. We cannot assure that significant problems in these areas will not occur. Failure to expand these areas and implement and improve such systems, procedures and controls in an efficient manner at a pace consistent with our business could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. We cannot assure that attempts to expand our marketing, sales, manufacturing and customer support efforts will succeed or generate additional sales or profits in any future period. As a result of the expansion of our operations and the anticipated increase in our operating expenses, along with the difficulty in forecasting revenue levels, we expect to continue to experience significant fluctuations in its results of operations.

 

We may be unable to successfully expand our production capacity, which could result in material delays, quality issues, increased costs and loss of business opportunities, which may negatively impact our product margins and profitability.

 

Part of our future growth strategy is to increase our production capacity to meet increasing demand for our goods. Assuming we obtain sufficient funding to increase our production capacity, any projects to increase such capacity may not be constructed on the anticipated timetable or within budget. We may also experience quality control issues as we implement any production upgrades. Any material delay in completing these projects, or any substantial cost increases or quality issues in connection with these projects could materially delay our ability to bring our products to market and adversely affect our business, reduce our revenue, income and available cash, all of which could harm our financial condition.

 

If we fail to establish and maintain an effective system of internal control over financial reporting, we may not be able to report our financial results accurately or prevent fraud. Any inability to report and file our financial results accurately and timely could harm our reputation and adversely impact the trading price of our common stock. 

 

Effective internal control over financial reporting is necessary for us to provide reliable financial reports and prevent fraud. If we cannot provide reliable financial reports or prevent fraud, we may not be able to manage our business as effectively as we would if an effective control environment existed, and our business and reputation with investors may be harmed. As a result, our small size and any current internal control deficiencies may adversely affect our financial condition, results of operations and access to capital. We have carried out an evaluation under the supervision and with the participation of our management, including our principal executive officer and principal financial officer, of the effectiveness of the design and operation of our disclosure controls and procedures as of the end of the most recent period covered by this report. Based on the foregoing, our principal executive officer and principal financial officer concluded that our disclosure controls and procedures were not effective at the reasonable assurance level due to the material weaknesses described below.

 

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A material weakness is a deficiency, or a combination of deficiencies, within the meaning of Public Company Accounting Oversight Board (“PCAOB”) Audit Standard No. 5, in internal control over financial reporting, such that there is a reasonable possibility that a material misstatement of our annual or interim financial statements will not be prevented or detected on a timely basis. Management has identified the following material weaknesses which have caused management to conclude that as of December 31, 2019, our internal control over financial reporting (“ICFR”) was not effective at the reasonable assurance level:

 

  1. We do not have sufficient resources in our accounting function, which restricts our ability to gather, analyze and properly review information related to financial reporting, including fair value estimates, in a timely manner. In addition, due to our size and nature, segregation of all conflicting duties may not always be possible and may not be economically feasible. However, to the extent possible, the initiation of transactions, the custody of assets and the recording of transactions should be performed by separate individuals. Management evaluated the impact of our failure to have segregation of duties during our assessment of our disclosure controls and procedures and concluded that the control deficiency that resulted represented a material weakness.

 

  2.

We have inadequate controls to ensure that information necessary to properly record transactions is adequately communicated on a timely basis from non-financial personnel to those responsible for financial reporting. Management evaluated the impact of the lack of timely communication between non–financial and financial personnel on our assessment of our reporting controls and procedures and has concluded that the control deficiency represented a material weakness.

 

 

  3.

We did not design or maintain effective general information technology (“IT”) controls over certain information systems that are relevant to the mitigation of the risk pertaining to the misappropriation of assets. Specifically, we did not design and implement program change management controls for certain financially relevant systems to ensure that IT program and data changes affecting the Company’s (i) financial IT applications, (ii) digital currency mining equipment, (iii) digital currency hardware wallets, and (iv) underlying accounting records, are identified, tested, authorized and implemented appropriately.

 

Planned Remediation

 

Management, in coordination with the input, oversight and support of our board of directors, has identified the measures below to strengthen our control environment and internal control over financial reporting.

 

In January 2018, we hired a new Chief Financial Officer and engaged the services of a financial accounting advisory firm. In September 2018, we hired a Chief Accounting Officer and in January 2019, we hired a Senior Vice President of Finance. Finally, in May 2019, we hired an Executive Vice President and General Counsel. We have tasked these individuals with expanding and monitoring the Company’s internal controls, to provide an additional level of review of complex financial issues and to assist with financial reporting. On October 7, 2019, we created an Executive Committee comprised of our Chief Executive Officer, President and Executive Vice President and General Counsel. The Executive Committee meets on a daily basis to address the Company’s critical needs and provide a forum to approve transactions. On December 16, 2020, we engaged Moss Adams LLP to further assist in our compliance with Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 and to identify internal control process improvement opportunities. Further, as we continue to expand our internal accounting department, the Chairman of the Audit Committee will:

 

assist with documentation and implementation of policies and procedures and monitoring of controls; and

 

review all anticipated transactions that are not considered in the ordinary course of business to assist in the early identification of accounting issues and ensure that appropriate disclosures are made in our financial statements.

 

We are currently working to improve and simplify our internal processes and implement enhanced controls, as discussed above, to address the material weaknesses in our internal control over financial reporting and to remedy the ineffectiveness of our disclosure controls and procedures. These material weaknesses will not be considered to be remediated until the applicable remediated controls are operating for a sufficient period of time and management has concluded, through testing, that these controls are operating effectively.

 

If our accounting controls and procedures are circumvented or otherwise fail to achieve their intended purposes, our business could be seriously harmed.

 

We evaluate our disclosure controls and procedures as of the end of each fiscal quarter, and are annually reviewing and evaluating our internal control over financial reporting in order to comply with the SEC’s rules relating to internal control over financial reporting adopted pursuant to the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. Because of its inherent limitations, internal control over financial reporting may not prevent or detect misstatements. Also, projections of any evaluation of effectiveness to future periods are subject to the risk that controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or that the degree of compliance with the policies or procedures may deteriorate. If we fail to maintain effective internal control over financial reporting or our management does not timely assess the adequacy of such internal control, we may be subject to regulatory sanctions, and our reputation may decline.

 

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We face significant competition, including changes in pricing.

 

The markets for our products are both competitive and price sensitive. Many competitors have significant financial, operations, sales and marketing resources, plus experience in research and development, and compete with us by offering lower prices. Competitors could develop new technologies that compete with our products to achieve a lower unit price. If a competitor develops lower cost superior technology or cost-effective alternatives to our products and services, our business could be seriously harmed.

 

The markets for some of our products are also subject to specific competitive risks because these markets are highly price competitive. Our competitors have competed in the past by lowering prices on certain products. If they do so again, we may be forced to respond by lowering our prices. This would reduce sales revenues and increase losses. Failure to anticipate and respond to price competition may also impact sales and aggravate losses.

 

Many of our competitors are larger and have greater financial and other resources than we do.

 

Our products compete and will compete with similar if not identical products produced by our competitors. These competitive products could be marketed by well-established, successful companies that possess greater financial, marketing, distribution personnel, and other resources than we do. Using said resources, these companies can implement extensive advertising and promotional campaigns, both generally and in response to specific marketing efforts by competitors. They can introduce new products to new markets more rapidly. In certain instances, competitors with greater financial resources may be able to enter a market in direct competition with us, offering attractive marketing tools to encourage the sale of products that compete with our products or present cost features that consumers may find attractive. 

 

Our growth strategy is subject to a significant degree of risk.

 

Our growth strategy through acquisitions involves a significant degree of risk. Some of the companies that we have identified as acquisition targets or make a significant investment in may not have a developed business or are experiencing inefficiencies and incur losses. Therefore, we may lose our investment in the event that these companies’ businesses do not develop as planned or that we are unable to achieve the cost efficiencies or reduction of losses as anticipated.

 

Further, in order to implement our growth plan, we have hired additional staff and consultants to review potential investments and implement our plan. As a result, we have substantially increased our infrastructure and costs. If we fail to quickly find new companies that provide revenue to offset our costs, we will continue to experience losses. No assurance can be given that our product development and investments will produce sufficient revenues to offset these increases in expenditures. 

 

Our business and operations are growing rapidly. If we fail to effectively manage our growth, our business and operating results could be harmed.

 

We have experienced, and may continue to experience, rapid growth in our operations. This has placed, and may continue to place, significant demands on our management, operational and financial infrastructure. If we do not manage our growth effectively, the quality of our products and services could suffer, which could negatively affect our operating results. To effectively manage our growth, we must continue to improve our operational, financial and management controls and reporting systems and procedures. These systems improvements may require significant capital expenditures and management resources. Failure to implement these improvements could hurt our ability to manage our growth and our financial position.

 

We are heavily dependent on our senior management, and a loss of a member of our senior management team could cause our stock price to suffer.

 

If we lose the services of Milton C. Ault III, our Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, William B. Horne, our President, or Henry Nisser, our Executive Vice President and General Counsel, and/or certain key employees, we may not be able to find appropriate replacements on a timely basis, and our business could be adversely affected. Our existing operations and continued future development depend to a significant extent upon the performance and active participation of these individuals and certain key employees. Although we have entered into employment agreements with Messrs. Ault, Horne and Nisser, and we may enter into employment agreements with additional key employees in the future, we cannot guarantee that we will be successful in retaining the services of these individuals. If we were to lose any of these individuals, we may not be able to find appropriate replacements on a timely basis and our financial condition and results of operations could be materially adversely affected.

 

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We rely on highly skilled personnel and the continuing efforts of our executive officers and, if we are unable to retain, motivate or hire qualified personnel, our business may be severely disrupted.

 

Our performance largely depends on the talents, knowledge, skills, know-how and efforts of highly skilled individuals and in particular, the expertise held by our Chairman and Chief Executive Officer, Milton C. Ault III. His absence, were it to occur, would materially and adversely impact development and implementation of our projects and businesses. Our future success depends on our continuing ability to identify, hire, develop, motivate and retain highly skilled personnel for all areas of our organization. Our continued ability to compete effectively depends on our ability to attract, among others, new technology developers and to retain and motivate our existing contractors. If one or more of our executive officers are unable or unwilling to continue in their present positions, we may not be able to replace them readily, if at all. Therefore, our business may be severely disrupted, and we may incur additional expenses to recruit and retain new officers. In addition, if any of our executives joins a competitor or forms a competing company, we may lose some customers.

 

Our operating results may vary from quarter to quarter.

 

Our operating results have in the past been subject to quarter-to-quarter fluctuations, and we expect that these fluctuations will continue, and may increase in magnitude, in future periods. Demand for our products is driven by many factors, including the availability of funding for our products in our customers’ capital budgets. There is a trend for some of our customers to place large orders near the end of a quarter or fiscal year, in part to spend remaining available capital budget funds. Seasonal fluctuations in customer demand for our products driven by budgetary and other concerns can create corresponding fluctuations in period-to-period revenues, and we therefore cannot assure you that our results in one period are necessarily indicative of our revenues in any future period. In addition, the number and timing of large individual sales and the ability to obtain acceptances of those sales, where applicable, have been difficult for us to predict, and large individual sales have, in some cases, occurred in quarters subsequent to those we anticipated, or have not occurred at all. The loss or deferral of one or more significant sales in a quarter could harm our operating results for such quarter. It is possible that, in some quarters, our operating results will be below the expectations of public market analysts or investors. In such events, or in the event adverse conditions prevail, the market price of our common stock may decline significantly.

 

We may be classified as an inadvertent investment company.

 

We are not engaged in the business of investing, reinvesting, or trading in securities, and we do not hold ourselves out as being engaged in those activities. Under the Investment Company Act, however, a company may be deemed an investment company under section 3(a)(1)(C) of the Investment Company Act if the value of its investment securities is more than 40% of its total assets (exclusive of government securities and cash items) on a consolidated basis.

 

Our lending subsidiary, Digital Power Lending, LLC (“DP Lending”), operates under California Finance Lending License #60DBO-77905. Per the Investment Company Act of 1940 companies with substantially all their business confined to making small loans, industrial banking or similar business, such as DP Lending, are excluded from the definition of an investment company.

 

We have commenced digital asset mining, the output of which is cryptocurrencies, which the SEC has indicated it deems a security. In the event that the digital assets held by us exceed 40% of our total assets, exclusive of cash, we inadvertently become an investment company. An inadvertent investment company can avoid being classified as an investment company if it can rely on one of the exclusions under the Investment Company Act. One such exclusion, Rule 3a-2 under the Investment Company Act, allows an inadvertent investment company a grace period of one year from the earlier of (a) the date on which an issuer owns securities and/or cash having a value exceeding 50% of the issuer’s total assets on either a consolidated or unconsolidated basis and (b) the date on which an issuer owns or proposes to acquire investment securities having a value exceeding 40% of the value of such issuer’s total assets (exclusive of government securities and cash items) on an unconsolidated basis. We are putting in place policies that we expect will work to keep the investment securities held by us at less than 40% of our total assets, which may include acquiring assets with our cash, liquidating our investment securities or seeking a no-action letter from the SEC if we are unable to acquire sufficient assets or liquidate sufficient investment securities in a timely manner.

 

As Rule 3a-2 is available to a company no more than once every three years, and assuming no other exclusion were available to us, we would have to keep within the 40% limit for at least three years after we cease being an inadvertent investment company. This may limit our ability to make certain investments or enter into joint ventures that could otherwise have a positive impact on our earnings. In any event, we do not intend to become an investment company engaged in the business of investing and trading securities.

 

Classification as an investment company under the Investment Company Act requires registration with the SEC. If an investment company fails to register, it would have to stop doing almost all business, and its contracts would become voidable. Registration is time consuming and restrictive and would require a restructuring of our operations, and we would be very constrained in the kind of business we could do as a registered investment company. Further, we would become subject to substantial regulation concerning management, operations, transactions with affiliated persons and portfolio composition, and would need to file reports under the Investment Company Act regime. The cost of such compliance would result in our incurring substantial additional expenses, and the failure to register if required would have a materially adverse impact to conduct our operations.

 

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We will not be able to successfully execute our business strategy if we are deemed to be an investment company under the Investment Company Act.

 

U.S. companies that have more than 100 stockholders or are publicly traded in the U.S. and are, or hold themselves out as being, engaged primarily in the business of investing, reinvesting or trading in securities are subject to regulation under the Investment Company Act.  Unless a substantial part of our assets consists of, and a substantial part of our income is derived from, interests in majority-owned subsidiaries and companies that we primarily control, we may be required to register and become subject to regulation under the Investment Company Act.  If we were deemed to own but not operate one or more of our other subsidiaries, we would have difficulty avoiding classification and regulation as an investment company.

 

If we were deemed to be, and were required to register as, an investment company, we would be forced to comply with substantive requirements under the Investment Company Act, including limitations on our ability to borrow, limitations on our capital structure; restrictions on acquisitions of interests in associated companies, prohibitions on transactions with affiliates, restrictions on specific investments, and compliance with reporting, record keeping, voting, proxy disclosure and other rules and regulations.  If we were forced to comply with the rules and regulations of the Investment Company Act, our operations would significantly change, and we would be prevented from successfully executing our business strategy.  To avoid regulation under the Investment Company Act and related rules promulgated by the SEC, we could need to sell bitcoin and other assets which we would otherwise want to retain and could be unable to sell assets which we would otherwise want to sell.  In addition, we could be forced to acquire additional, or retain existing, income-generating or loss-generating assets which we would not otherwise have acquired or retained and could need to forgo opportunities to acquire bitcoin and other assets that would benefit our business.  If we were forced to sell, buy or retain assets in this manner, we could be prevented from successfully executing our business strategy.

 

Securitization of our assets subjects us to various risks.

 

We may securitize assets to generate cash for funding new investments. We refer to the term securitize to describe a form of leverage under which a company (sometimes referred to as an “originator” or “sponsor”) transfers income producing assets to a single-purpose, bankruptcy-remote subsidiary (also referred to as a “special purpose entity” or “SPE”), which is established solely for the purpose of holding such assets and entering into a structured finance transaction. The SPE would then issue notes secured by such assets. The special purpose entity may issue the notes in the capital markets either publicly or privately to a variety of investors, including banks, non-bank financial institutions and other investors. There may be a single class of notes or multiple classes of notes, the most senior of which carries less credit risk and the most junior of which may carry substantially the same credit risk as the equity of the SPE.

 

An important aspect of most debt securitization transactions is that the sale and/or contribution of assets into the SPE be considered a true sale and/or contribution for accounting purposes and that a reviewing court would not consolidate the SPE with the operations of the originator in the event of the originator's bankruptcy based on equitable principles. Viewed as a whole, a debt securitization seeks to lower risk to the note purchasers by isolating the assets collateralizing the securitization in an SPE that is not subject to the credit and bankruptcy risks of the originator. As a result of this perceived reduction of risk, debt securitization transactions frequently achieve lower overall leverage costs for originators as compared to traditional secured lending transactions.

 

In accordance with the above description, to securitize loans, we may create a wholly owned subsidiary and contribute a pool of our assets to such subsidiary. The SPE may be funded with, among other things, whole loans or interests from other pools and such loans may or may not be rated. The SPE would then sell its notes to purchasers whom we would expect to be willing to accept a lower interest rate and the absence of any recourse against us to invest in a pool of income producing assets to which none of our creditors would have access. We would retain all or a portion of the equity in the SPE. An inability to successfully securitize portions of our portfolio or otherwise leverage our portfolio through secured and unsecured borrowings could limit our ability to grow our business and fully execute our business strategy, and could decrease our earnings, if any. However, the successful securitization of portions of our portfolio exposes us to a risk of loss for the equity we retain in the SPE and might expose us to greater risk on our remaining portfolio because the assets we retain may tend to be those that are riskier and more likely to generate losses. A successful securitization may also impose financial and operating covenants that restrict our business activities and may include limitations that could hinder our ability to finance additional loans and investments. The Investment Company Act may also impose restrictions on the structure of any securitizations.

 

Interests we hold in the SPE, if any, will be subordinated to the other interests issued by the SPE. As such, we will only receive cash distributions on such interests if the SPE has made all cash interest and other required payments on all other interests it has issued. In addition, our subordinated interests will likely be unsecured and rank behind all of the secured creditors, known or unknown, of the SPE, including the holders of the senior interests it has issued. Consequently, to the extent that the value of the SPE's portfolio of assets has been reduced as a result of conditions in the credit markets, or as a result of defaults, the value of the subordinated interests we retain would be reduced. Securitization imposes on us the same risks as borrowing except that our risk in a securitization is limited to the amount of subordinated interests we retain, whereas in a borrowing or debt issuance by us directly we would be at risk for the entire amount of the borrowing or debt issuance.

 

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We may also engage in transactions utilizing SPEs and securitization techniques where the assets sold or contributed to the SPE remain on our balance sheet for accounting purposes. If, for example, we sell the assets to the SPE with recourse or provide a guarantee or other credit support to the SPE, its assets will remain on our balance sheet. Consolidation would also generally result if we, in consultation with the SEC, determine that consolidation would result in a more accurate reflection of our assets, liabilities and results of operations. In these structures, the risks will be essentially the same as in other securitization transactions but the assets will remain our assets for purposes of the limitations described above on investing in assets that are not qualifying assets and the leverage incurred by the SPE will be treated as borrowings incurred by us for purposes of our limitation on the issuance of senior securities.

 

We may not be able to utilize our net operating loss carry forwards.

 

At December 31, 2019, we had federal net operating loss carry forwards (“NOLs”) for income tax purposes of approximately $52,884,756. Approximately $12,302,381 of NOLs generated prior to 2018 has begun to expire in 2020. The Coronavirus Aid, Relief, and Economic Security Act signed in to law on March 27, 2020 provided that NOLs generated in a taxable year beginning in 2018, 2019, or 2020, may now be carried back five years and forward indefinitely. In addition, the 80% taxable income limitation is temporarily removed, allowing NOLs to fully offset net taxable income. However, we do not know if or when we will have any earnings and capital gains against which we could apply these carry forwards.  Furthermore, as a result of changes in the ownership of our common stock, our ability to use our federal NOLs will be limited under Internal Revenue Code Section 382.  State NOLs are subject to similar limitations in many cases.  As a result, our substantial NOLs may not have any value to us.

 

Changes in the U.S. tax and other laws and regulations may adversely affect our business.

 

The U.S. government may revise tax laws, regulations or official interpretations in ways that could have a significant adverse effect on our business, including modifications that could reduce the profits that we can effectively realize from our international operations, or that could require costly changes to those operations, or the way in which they are structured.  For example, the effective tax rates for most U.S. companies reflect the fact that income earned and reinvested outside the U.S. is generally taxed at local rates, which may be much lower than U.S. tax rates.  If we expand abroad and there are changes in tax laws, regulations or interpretations that significantly increase the tax rates on non-U.S. income, our effective tax rate could increase and our profits could be reduced.  If such increases resulted from our status as a U.S. company, those changes could place us at a disadvantage to our non-U.S. competitors if those competitors remain subject to lower local tax rates.

 

Risks Related to Related Party Transactions

 

There may be conflicts of interest between our company and certain of our related parties and their respective directors and officers which might not be resolved in our favor. More importantly, there may be conflicts between certain of our related parties and their respective directors and officers which might not be resolved in our favor. These risks are set forth below appurtenant to the relevant related party.

 

Ault & Company

 

Our relationship with Ault & Company may enhance the difficulty inherent in obtaining financing for us as well as expose us to certain conflicts of interest.

 

As of the date of this prospectus, Ault & Company, of which Milton C. Ault is the chief executive officer, beneficially owned 1,362,795 shares of our common stock, consisting of 1,078,967 shares owned, 275,862 shares of common stock underlying the 8% Convertible Promissory Note in the outstanding principal amount of $400,000 sold by us to Ault & Company on February 5, 2020, assuming no conversion of accrued, unpaid interest on this note, warrants to purchase 94 shares of common stock that are currently exercisable and shares owned by Philou Ventures, of which Ault & Company, Inc. is the Manager, consisting of: (i) 125,000 shares of Series B Preferred Stock that are convertible into 2,232 shares of common stock, (ii) warrants to purchase 2,232 shares of common stock that are exercisable within 60 days of the date hereof and (iii) 3,408 shares of common stock. Assuming Ault & Company converted its note on the date of this prospectus, Ault & Company would own a number of shares of common stock equal to 4.9% of the number of shares of common stock on the date hereof.

 

Further, Ault & Company and our company are negotiating the terms of a proposed purchase by Ault & Company of a certain number of shares of Series C Preferred Stock. Presently, neither the number nor the terms of any such Series C Preferred Stock has been determined, and any such purchase would have to be approved by our stockholders before Ault & Company would be able to vote or convert such shares of Series C Preferred Stock. Notwithstanding the presently indeterminate nature of any such acquisition of Series Preferred Stock, you should be aware that the consummation of such a transaction, assuming the receipt by the Company of its stockholders approval thereof, could substantially increase Ault & Company’s beneficial ownership of our shares of common stock.

 

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Given the close relationship between Ault & Company on the one hand, and our company on the other, it is far from inconceivable that we could enter into additional securities purchase agreements with Ault & Company.

 

Although we have relied on Philou, which no longer beneficially owns any meaningful number of our shares of common stock, to finance us in the past, and anticipate that Ault & Company may purchase shares of our Series C Preferred Stock under an agreement providing for the purchase thereof, we cannot assure you that either Philou or Ault & Company will assist us in the future. We would far prefer to rely on these entities’ assistance compared to other sources of financing as the terms they provide us are in general more favorable to us than we could obtain elsewhere. However, Messrs. Ault, Horne and Nisser could face a conflict of interest in that they serve on the board of directors of each of Ault & Company and our company. If they determine that an investment in our company is not in Ault & Company’s best interest, we could be forced to seek financing from other sources that would not necessarily be likely to provide us with equally favorable terms.

 

Other conflicts of interest between us, on the one hand, and Ault & Company, on the other hand, may arise relating to commercial or strategic opportunities or initiatives. Mr. Ault, as the controlling shareholder of Ault & Company, may not resolve such conflicts in our favor. For example, we cannot assure you that Ault & Company would not pursue opportunities to provide financing to other entities whether or not it currently has a relationship with such other entities. Furthermore, our ability to explore alternative sources of financing other than Ault & Company may be constrained due to Mr. Ault’s vision for us and he may not wish for us to receive any financing at all other than from entities that he controls.

 

Alzamend Neuro, Inc.

 

Our relationship with Alzamend Neuro may expose us to certain conflicts of interest.

 

In August 2020, Alzamend Neuro entered into a securities purchase agreement with our company to sell a convertible promissory note of Alzamend Neuro, in the aggregate principal amount of $50,000 and issue a 5-year warrant to purchase 16,667 of shares of its common stock. The convertible promissory note bears interest at 8% per annum, which principal and all accrued and unpaid interest are due six months after the date of issuance. The principal and interest earned on the convertible promissory note may be converted into shares of the Alzamend Neuro’s common stock at $1.50 per share. The exercise price of the warrant is $3.00 per share.

 

In December 2020, we provided Alzamend Neuro $1,000,000 in short-term advances.

 

Messrs. Ault, Horne and Nisser could face a conflict of interest in that they serve on the board of directors of each of Alzamend Neuro and our company. Mr. Cragun, our chief financial officer is also the chief financial officer of Alzamend Neuro.

 

Avalanche International Corp.

 

We have lent a substantial amount of funds to Avalanche, a related party, whose ability to repay us is subject to significant doubt and it may not be in our stockholders’ best interest to convert the notes into shares of Avalanche common stock even if we had a reasonably viable means of doing so.

 

On September 6, 2017, we entered into a Loan and Security Agreement with Avalanche (“AVLP Loan Agreement”) with an effective date of August 21, 2017 pursuant to which we will provide Avalanche a non-revolving credit facility of up to $10,000,000 for a period ending on August 21, 2021.

 

At September 30, 2020, we had provided Avalanche with $10,153,661 pursuant to the non-revolving credit facility. The warrants issued in conjunction with the non-revolving credit facility entitles us to purchase up to 20,306,921 shares of Avalanche common stock at an exercise price of $0.50 per share for a period of five years. The exercise price of $0.50 is subject to adjustment for customary stock splits, stock dividends, combinations or similar events. The warrants may be exercised for cash or on a cashless basis.

 

There is currently no liquid market for the Avalanche common stock. Consequently, even if we were inclined to convert the debt owed us by Avalanche into shares of its common stock, our ability to sell such shares is severely limited. Avalanche is not current in its filings with the SEC and is not required to register the shares of its common stock underlying the amount provided pursuant to the non-revolving credit facility or any other loan arrangement we have made with Avalanche described above. Further, even if Avalanche were willing to register such shares, it would not be permitted to do so until it has registered the shares of its common stock underlying the Third Party Note.

 

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As a result, there is considerable doubt as to whether Avalanche will ever have the ability to repay its debts to us, or if we convert the debt owed us by Avalanche into shares of its common stock, our ability to convert such shares into cash through the sale of such shares would be severely limited until such time, if ever, a liquid market for Avalanche’s common stock develops. If we are unable to recoup our investment in Avalanche in the foreseeable future or at all, such failure would have a materially adverse effect on our financial condition and future prospects.

 

Originally, the loans we made to Avalanche were secured by a lien on all of Avalanche’s assets. Presently, we only have third priority interest.

 

Originally, the loans we made to Avalanche were secured by a lien on all of Avalanche’s assets. When Avalanche entered into the Exchange Agreement with MTIX (see below), the former owners of MTIX were granted a first priority interest in all of MTIX’s assets, which constitute virtually all of Avalanche’s assets and reduced our interest to that of a second position, greatly diminishing its value. When Avalanche issued the Third Party Note referred to above, it granted the third party a first priority security interest in all its assets, to include those comprised of MTIX. Both we and the former owners of MTIX consented to the subordination of our respective security interests. Since our security interests have been reduced to a third position, we will have no ability to use Avalanche’s assets to offset any default in Avalanche’s debt obligations to us unless and until the two other security interests are terminated, which would not occur until Avalanche’s debts to the senior creditors have been repaid. We do not anticipate that Avalanche will repay its debts to these creditors within the foreseeable future and will therefore have no recourse should Avalanche default on its debts to us during this period of time. Any failure by Avalanche to repay us would therefore have a materially adverse effect on our results of operations, financial condition and future prospects.

 

Milton C. Ault, III and William Horne, our Chief Executive Officer and President, respectively, and two of our directors are directors of Avalanche. In addition, Philou is the controlling stockholder of Avalanche.

 

Milton C. Ault, III and William Horne, our Chief Executive Officer and President, respectively, and two of our directors are directors of Avalanche. In addition, Philou is the controlling stockholder of Avalanche. Certain conflicts of interest between us, on the one hand, and Avalanche, on the other hand, may arise relating to commercial or strategic opportunities or initiatives, in addition to the conflicts related to the debt that Avalanche owes us. For example, Messrs. Ault and Horne may find it difficult to determine how to meet their fiduciary duties to us as well as Avalanche, which could result in a less favorable result for us than would be the case if they were solely directors of our company. Further, even if Messrs. Ault and Horne were able to successfully meet their fiduciary obligations to us and Avalanche, the fact that are members of the board of directors of both companies could attenuate their ability to focus on our business and best interests, possibly to the detriment of both companies. Mr. Ault’s control of Philou through Ault & Company only enhances the risk inherent in having Messrs. Ault and Horne serve as directors of both our company and Avalanche.

 

Risks Related to Our Business and Industry - Overview

 

Technology changes rapidly in our business, and if we fail to anticipate new technologies, the quality, timeliness and competitiveness of our products will suffer.

 

Rapid technology changes in our industry require us to anticipate, sometimes years in advance, which technologies and/or distribution platforms our products must take advantage of in order to make them competitive in the market at the time they are released. Therefore, we usually start our product development with a range of technical development goals that we hope to be able to achieve. We may not be able to achieve these goals, or our competition may be able to achieve them more quickly than we can. In either case, our products may be technologically inferior to competitive products, or less appealing to consumers, or both. If we cannot achieve our technology goals within the original development schedule of our products, then we may delay products until these technology goals can be achieved, which may delay or reduce revenue and increase our development expenses. Alternatively, we may increase the resources employed in research and development in an attempt to accelerate our development of new technologies, either to preserve our product launch schedule or to keep up with our competition, which would increase our development expenses and adversely affect our operations and financial condition.

 

We are dependent upon our ability, and our contract manufacturers’ ability, to timely procure electronic components.

 

Because of the global economy, many raw material vendors have reduced capacities, closed production lines and, in some cases, even discontinued their operations. As a result, there is a global shortage of certain electronic or mineral components, which may extend our production lead-time and our production costs. Some materials are no longer available to support some of our products, thereby requiring us to search for cross materials or, even worse, redesign some of our products to support currently-available materials. Such redesign efforts may require certain regulatory and safety agency re-submittals, which may cause further production delays. While we have initiated actions that we believe will limit our exposure to such problems, the dynamic business conditions in many of our markets may challenge the solutions that have been put in place, and issues may recur in the future.

 

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In addition, some of our products are manufactured, assembled and tested by third party subcontractors and contract manufacturers located in Asia. While we have had relationships with many of these third parties in the past, we cannot predict how or whether these relationships will continue in the future. In addition, changes in management, financial viability, manufacturing demand or capacity, or other factors, at these third parties could hurt our ability to manufacture our products.

 

Our strategic focus on our custom power supply solution competencies and concurrent cost reduction plans may be ineffective or may limit our ability to compete.

 

As a result of our strategic focus on custom power supply solutions, we will continue to devote significant resources to developing and manufacturing custom power supply solutions for a large number of customers, where each product represents a uniquely tailored solution for a specific customer’s requirements. Failure to meet these customer product requirements or a failure to meet production schedules and/or product quality standards may put us at risk with one or more of these customers. Moreover, changes in market conditions and strategic changes at the direction of our customers may affect their decision to continue to purchase from us. The loss of one or more of our significant custom power supply solution customers could have a material adverse impact on our revenues, business or financial condition.

 

We have also implemented a series of initiatives designed to increase efficiency and reduce costs. While we believe that these actions will reduce costs, they may not be sufficient to achieve the required operational efficiencies that will enable us to respond more quickly to changes in the market or result in the improvements in our business that we anticipate. In such event, we may be forced to take additional cost-reducing initiatives, including those involving our personnel, which may negatively impact quarterly earnings and profitability as we account for severance and other related costs. In addition, there is the risk that such measures could have long-term adverse effects on our business by reducing our pool of talent, decreasing or slowing improvements in our products or services, making it more difficult for us to respond to customers, limiting our ability to increase production quickly if and when the demand for our solutions increases and limiting our ability to hire and retain key personnel. These circumstances could cause our earnings to be lower than they otherwise might be.

 

We depend upon a few major customers for a majority of our revenues, and the loss of any of these customers, or the substantial reduction in the quantity of products that they purchase from us, would significantly reduce our revenues and net income.

 

We currently depend upon a few major OEMs and other customers for a significant portion of our revenues. If our major OEM customers will reduce or cancel their orders scaling back some of their activities, our revenues and net income would be significantly reduced. Furthermore, diversions in the capital spending of certain of these customers to new network elements have and could continue to lead to their reduced demand for our products, which could, in turn, have a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations. If the financial condition of one or more of our major customers should deteriorate, or if they have difficulty acquiring investment capital due to any of these or other factors, a substantial decrease in our revenues would likely result. We are dependent on the electronic equipment industry, and accordingly will be affected by the impact on that industry of current economic conditions.

 

Substantially all of our existing customers are in the electronic equipment industry, and they manufacture products that are subject to rapid technological change, obsolescence, and large fluctuations in demand. This industry is further characterized by intense competition and volatility. The OEMs serving this industry are pressured for increased product performance and lower product prices. OEMs, in turn, make similar demands on their suppliers, such as us, for increased product performance and lower prices. Such demands may adversely affect our ability to successfully compete in certain markets or our ability to sustain our gross margins.

 

Our reliance on subcontract manufacturers to manufacture certain aspects of our products involves risks, including delays in product shipments and reduced control over product quality.

 

Since we do not own significant manufacturing facilities, we must rely on, and will continue to rely on, a limited number of subcontract manufacturers to manufacture our power supply products. Our reliance upon such subcontract manufacturers involves several risks, including reduced control over manufacturing costs, delivery times, reliability and quality of components, unfavorable currency exchange fluctuations, and continued inflationary pressures on many of the raw materials used in the manufacturing of our power supply products. If we were to encounter a shortage of key manufacturing components from limited sources of supply, or experience manufacturing delays caused by reduced manufacturing capacity, inability of our subcontract manufacturers to procure raw materials, the loss of key assembly subcontractors, difficulties associated with the transition to our new subcontract manufacturers or other factors, we could experience lost revenues, increased costs, and delays in, or cancellations or rescheduling of, orders or shipments, any of which would materially harm our business.

 

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We outsource, and are dependent upon developer partners for, the development of some of our custom design products.

 

We made an operational decision to outsource some of our custom design products to numerous developer partners. This business structure will remain in place until the custom design volume justifies expanding our in house capabilities. Incomplete product designs that do not fully comply with the customer specifications and requirements might affect our ability to transition to a volume production stage of the custom designed product where the revenue goals are dependent on the high volume of custom product production. Furthermore, we rely on the design partners’ ability to provide high quality prototypes of the designed product for our customer approval as a critical stage to approve production.

 

We face intense industry competition, price erosion and product obsolescence, which, in turn, could reduce our profitability.

 

We operate in an industry that is generally characterized by intense competition. We believe that the principal bases of competition in our markets are breadth of product line, quality of products, stability, reliability and reputation of the provider, along with cost. Quantity discounts, price erosion, and rapid product obsolescence due to technological improvements are therefore common in our industry as competitors strive to retain or expand market share. Product obsolescence can lead to increases in unsaleable inventory that may need to be written off and, therefore, could reduce our profitability. Similarly, price erosion can reduce our profitability by decreasing our revenues and our gross margins. In fact, we have seen price erosion over the last several years on most of the products we sell, and we expect additional price erosion in the future.

 

Our future results are dependent on our ability to establish, maintain and expand our manufacturers’ representative OEM relationships and our other relationships.

 

We market and sell our products through domestic and international OEM relationships and other distribution channels, such as manufacturers’ representatives and distributors. Our future results are dependent on our ability to establish, maintain and expand our relationships with OEMs as well as with manufacturers’ representatives and distributors to sell our products. If, however, the third parties with whom we have entered into such OEM and other arrangements should fail to meet their contractual obligations, cease doing, or reduce the amount of their, business with us or otherwise fail to meet their own performance objectives, customer demand for our products could be adversely affected, which would have an adverse effect on our revenues.

 

We may not be able to procure necessary key components for our products, or we may purchase too much inventory or the wrong inventory.

 

The power supply industry, and the electronics industry as a whole, can be subject to business cycles. During periods of growth and high demand for our products, we may not have adequate supplies of inventory on hand to satisfy our customers' needs. Furthermore, during these periods of growth, our suppliers may also experience high demand and, therefore, may not have adequate levels of the components and other materials that we require to build products so that we can meet our customers' needs. Our inability to secure sufficient components to build products for our customers could negatively impact our sales and operating results. We may choose to mitigate this risk by increasing the levels of inventory for certain key components. Increased inventory levels can increase the potential risk for excess and obsolescence should our forecasts fail to materialize or if there are negative factors impacting our customers’ end markets. If we purchase too much inventory or the wrong inventory, we may have to record additional inventory reserves or write-off the inventory, which could have a material adverse effect on our gross margins and on our results of operations.

 

Although we depend on sales of our legacy products for a meaningful portion of our revenues, these products are mature and their sales will decline.

 

A relatively large portion of our sales have historically been attributable to our legacy products. We expect that these products may continue to account for a meaningful percentage of our revenues for the foreseeable future. However, these sales are declining. Although we are unable to predict future prices for our legacy products, we expect that prices for these products will continue to be subject to significant downward pressure in certain markets for the reasons described above. Accordingly, our ability to maintain or increase revenues will be dependent on our ability to expand our customer base, to increase unit sales volumes of these products and to successfully, develop, introduce and sell new products such as custom design and value-added products. We cannot assure you that we will be able to expand our customer base, increase unit sales volumes of existing products or develop, introduce and/or sell new products.

 

Failure of our information technology infrastructure to operate effectively could adversely affect our business.

 

We depend heavily on information technology infrastructure to achieve our business objectives. If a problem occurs that impairs this infrastructure, the resulting disruption could impede our ability to record or process orders, manufacture and ship in a timely manner, or otherwise carry on business in the normal course. Any such events could cause us to lose customers or revenue and could require us to incur significant expense to remediate.

 

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We are subject to certain governmental regulatory restrictions relating to our international sales.

 

Some of our products are subject to International Traffic in Arms Regulation (“ITAR”), which are interpreted, enforced and administered by the U.S. Department of State. ITAR regulation controls not only the export, import and trade of certain products specifically designed, modified, configured or adapted for military systems, but also the export of related technical data and defense services as well as foreign production. Any delays in obtaining the required export, import or trade licenses for products subject to ITAR regulation and rules could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and/or operating results. In addition, changes in United States export and import laws that require us to obtain additional export and import licenses or delays in obtaining export or import licenses currently being sought could cause significant shipment delays and, if such delays are too great, could result in the cancellation of orders. Any future restrictions or charges imposed by the United States or any other country on our international sales or foreign subsidiary could have a materially adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and/or operating results. In addition, from time to time, we have entered into contracts with the Israeli Ministry of Defense which were governed by the U.S. Foreign Military Financing program (“FMF”). Any such future sales would be subject to these regulations. Failure to comply with ITAR or FMF rules could have a material adverse effect on our financial condition, and/or operating results.

  

We depend on international operations for a substantial majority of our components and products.

 

We purchase a substantial majority of our components from foreign manufacturers and have a substantial majority of our commercial products assembled, packaged, and tested by subcontractors located outside the United States. These activities are subject to the uncertainties associated with international business operations, including trade barriers and other restrictions, changes in trade policies, governmental regulations, currency exchange fluctuations, reduced protection for intellectual property, war and other military activities, terrorism, changes in social, political, or economic conditions, and other disruptions or delays in production or shipments, any of which could have a materially adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and/or operating results.

 

We depend on international sales for a portion of our revenues.

 

Sales to customers outside of North America accounted for 56.9% and 29.9% of net revenues for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, and we expect that international sales will continue to represent a material portion of our total revenues. International sales are subject to the risks of international business operations as described above, as well as generally longer payment cycles, greater difficulty collecting accounts receivable, and currency restrictions. In addition, Gresham, our wholly-owned subsidiary in the United Kingdom, supports our European and other international customers, distributors, and sales representatives, and therefore is also subject to local regulation. International sales are also subject to the export laws and regulations of the United States and other countries.

 

Our sales and profitability may be affected by changes in economic, business and industry conditions.

 

If the economic climate in the United States or abroad deteriorates, customers or potential customers could reduce or delay their technology and entertainment investments. Reduced or delayed technology and entertainment investments could decrease our sales and profitability. In this environment, our customers may experience financial difficulty, cease operations and fail to budget or reduce budgets for the purchase of our products and professional services. This may lead to longer sales cycles, delays in purchase decisions, payment and collection, and can also result in downward price pressures, causing our sales and profitability to decline. In addition, general economic uncertainty and general declines in capital spending in the information technology sector make it difficult to predict changes in the purchasing requirements of our customers and the markets we serve. There are many other factors which could affect our business, including:

 

The introduction and market acceptance of new technologies, products and services;

 

New competitors and new forms of competition;

 

The size and timing of customer orders (for retail distributed physical product); 

 

The size and timing of capital expenditures by our customers;

 

Adverse changes in the credit quality of our customers and suppliers; 

 

Changes in the pricing policies of, or the introduction of, new products and services by us or our competitors;

 

Changes in the terms of our contracts with our customers or suppliers;

 

The availability of products from our suppliers; and

 

Variations in product costs and the mix of products sold. 

 

These trends and factors could adversely affect our business, profitability and financial condition and diminish our ability to achieve our strategic objectives.

 

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The sale of our products is dependent upon our ability to satisfy the proprietary requirements of our customers.

 

We depend upon a relatively narrow range of products for the majority of our revenue. Our success in marketing our products is dependent upon their continued acceptance by our customers. In some cases, our customers require that our products meet their own proprietary requirements. If we are unable to satisfy such requirements, or forecast and adapt to changes in such requirements, our business could be materially harmed.

 

The sale of our products is dependent on our ability to respond to rapid technological change, including evolving industry-wide standards, and may be adversely affected by the development, and acceptance by our customers, of new technologies which may compete with, or reduce the demand for, our products.

 

Rapid technological change, including evolving industry standards, could render our products obsolete. To the extent our customers adopt such new technology in place of our products, the sales of our products may be adversely affected. Such competition may also increase pricing pressure for our products and adversely affect the revenues from such products.

 

Our limited ability to protect our proprietary information and technology may adversely affect our ability to compete, and our products could infringe upon the intellectual property rights of others, resulting in claims against us, the results of which could be costly.

 

Many of our products consist entirely or partly of proprietary technology owned by us. Although we seek to protect our technology through a combination of copyrights, trade secret laws and contractual obligations, these protections may not be sufficient to prevent the wrongful appropriation of our intellectual property, nor will they prevent our competitors from independently developing technologies that are substantially equivalent or superior to our proprietary technology. In addition, the laws of some foreign countries do not protect our proprietary rights to the same extent as the laws of the United States. In order to defend our proprietary rights in the technology utilized in our products from third party infringement, we may be required to institute legal proceedings, which would be costly and would divert our resources from the development of our business. If we are unable to successfully assert and defend our proprietary rights in the technology utilized in our products, our future results could be adversely affected.

 

Although we attempt to avoid infringing known proprietary rights of third parties in our product development efforts, we may become subject to legal proceedings and claims for alleged infringement from time to time in the ordinary course of business. Any claims relating to the infringement of third-party proprietary rights, even if not meritorious, could result in costly litigation, divert management’s attention and resources, require us to reengineer or cease sales of our products or require us to enter into royalty or license agreements which are not advantageous to us. In addition, parties making claims may be able to obtain an injunction, which could prevent us from selling our products in the United States or abroad.

  

If we are unable to satisfy our customers’ specific product quality, certification or network requirements, our business could be disrupted and our financial condition could be harmed.

 

Our customers demand that our products meet stringent quality, performance and reliability standards. We have, from time to time, experienced problems in satisfying such standards. Defects or failures have occurred in the past, and may in the future occur, relating to our product quality, performance and reliability. From time to time, our customers also require us to implement specific changes to our products to allow these products to operate within their specific network configurations. If we are unable to remedy these failures or defects or if we cannot effect such required product modifications, we could experience lost revenues, increased costs, including inventory write-offs, warranty expense and costs associated with customer support, delays in, or cancellations or rescheduling of, orders or shipments and product returns or discounts, any of which would harm our business.

  

If we ship products that contain defects, the market acceptance of our products and our reputation will be harmed and our customers could seek to recover their damages from us.

 

Our products are complex, and despite extensive testing, may contain defects or undetected errors or failures that may become apparent only after our products have been shipped to our customers and installed in their network or after product features or new versions are released. Any such defect, error or failure could result in failure of market acceptance of our products or damage to our reputation or relations with our customers, resulting in substantial costs for us and our customers as well as the cancellation of orders, warranty costs and product returns. In addition, any defects, errors, misuse of our products or other potential problems within or out of our control that may arise from the use of our products could result in financial or other damages to our customers. Our customers could seek to have us pay for these losses. Although we maintain product liability insurance, it may not be adequate.

 

Some of our business is subject to U.S. government procurement laws and regulations.

 

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We must comply with certain laws and regulations relating to the formation, administration and performance of federal government contracts. These laws and regulations affect how we conduct business with our federal government contracts, including the business that we do as a subcontractor. In complying with these laws and regulations, we may incur additional costs, and non-compliance may lead to the assessment of fines and penalties, including contractual damages, or the loss of business.

 

Risks Related to Our Business and Industry - Microphase

 

Microphase has a history of losses and our future profitability on a quarterly or annual basis is uncertain, which could have a harmful effect on our business and the value of our company.

 

During the past three fiscal years Microphase has incurred losses from operations. These losses are attributable to lower volumes of its products sold to major defense contractors partially as a result of the overall reduction in defense spending and sequestration by the U.S. Congress. Since the financial crisis of 2008, Microphase has been significantly short of capital needed to acquire parts for production of its products to complete orders for such products. At times, Microphase has not had the cash available to make advance payments for the purchase of parts, and then, as a consequence, Microphase would not receive the parts from its vendors required to finish a customer order. This would then delay the delivery of products to customers, and would also delay recognition of the resulting revenues and the receipt of cash from the customer. Sometimes after experiencing a delay in delivery of an order from Microphase, the customer would not place its next order with Microphase, resulting in a loss of business.

 

Microphase’s future profitability depends upon many factors, including several that are beyond its control. These factors include, without limitation:

 

• changes in the demand for ITS products and services;

 

loss of key customers or contracts;

 

the introduction of competitive products;

 

the failure to gain market acceptance of ITS new and existing products; and

 

the failure to successfully and cost effectively develop, introduce and market new products, services and product enhancements in a timely manner.

 

In addition, Microphase is incurring significant legal, accounting, and other expenses related to being a reporting company without there being a trading market for any of its securities. As a result of these expenditures, Microphase will have to generate and sustain increased revenue to achieve and maintain future profitability.

 

A large percentage of Microphase’s current revenue is derived from prime defense contractors to the U.S. government and its allies, and the loss of these relationships, a reduction in U.S. government funding or a change in U.S. government spending priorities or bidding processes could have an adverse impact on its business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. 

 

Microphase is highly dependent on sales to major defense contractors of the U.S. military and its allies, including Lockheed Martin, Raytheon, BAE Systems and SAAB. The percentages of its revenue that were derived from sales to these named major defense contractors and directly to the U.S. Government were 51.5% in fiscal 2019 and 55.6% in fiscal 2018. Therefore, any significant disruption or deterioration of Microphase’s relationship with any such major defense contractors or the U.S. Government could materially reduce its revenue.  During the year ended December 31, 2019 there were three customers that accounted for more than 10% of sales:  BAE Systems, Raytheon Company and Lockheed Martin.  During the year ended December 31, 2018 there were four customers that accounted for more than 10% of sales: BAE Systems, Raytheon Company, Saab and Lockheed Martin. Microphase’s competitors continuously engage in efforts to expand their business relationships with the same major defense contractors and the U.S. Government and will continue these efforts in the future, and the U.S. Government may choose to use other contractors. Microphase expects that a majority of the business that it seeks will be awarded through competitive bidding. Microphase operates in highly competitive markets and its competitors have more extensive or more specialized engineering, manufacturing and marketing capabilities than Microphase does in many areas, and Microphase may not be able to continue to win competitively awarded contracts or to obtain task orders under multi-award contracts. Further, the competitive bidding process involves significant cost and managerial time to prepare bids and proposals for contracts that may not be awarded to Microphase, as well as the risk that Microphase may fail to accurately estimate the resources and costs required to fulfill any contract awarded to us. Following any contract award, Microphase may experience significant expense or delay, contract modification or contract rescission as a result of its competitors protesting or challenging contracts awarded to it in competitive bidding. Major defense contractors to whom Microphase supplies components for systems must compete with other major defense contractors (to which Microphase may not supply components) for military orders from the U.S. Government.

 

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In addition, Microphase competes with other policy needs, which may be viewed as more necessary, for limited resources and an ever-changing amount of available funding in the budget and appropriation process. Budget and appropriations decisions made by the U.S. Government are outside of Microphase control and have long-term consequences for its business. U.S. Government spending priorities and levels remain uncertain and difficult to predict and are affected by numerous factors, including until recently sequestration (automatic, across-the-board U.S. Government budgetary spending cuts), and the purchase of our products could be superseded by alternate arrangements. While the US defense budget was recently increased, there can be no assurance that this increase will be maintained for the foreseeable future, particularly in light of the recent federal expenditures the federal government has made with a view to ameliorating the economic damage suffered as a result of COVID-19. A change in U.S. Government spending priorities or an increase in non-procurement spending at the expense of our programs, or a reduction in total U.S. Government spending, could have material adverse consequences on Microphase’s future business. 

 

Microphase’s U.S. government contracts may be terminated by the federal government at any time prior to their completion, which could lead to unexpected loss of sales and reduction in Microphase’s backlog.

 

Under the terms of Microphase’s U.S. government contracts, the U.S. government may unilaterally:

 

terminate or modify existing contracts;

 

reduce the value of existing contracts through partial termination; and

 

delay the payment of Microphase’s invoices by government payment offices.

 

The federal government can terminate or modify any of its contracts with Microphase or its prime contractors either for the federal government’s convenience, or if Microphase or its prime contractors default, by failing to perform under the terms of the applicable contract. A termination arising out of Microphase’s default could expose it to liability and have a material adverse effect on its ability to compete for future federal government contracts and subcontracts. If the federal government or its prime contractors terminate and/or materially modify any of Microphase’s contracts or if any applicable options are not exercised, Microphase’s failure to replace sales generated from such contracts would result in lower sales and would adversely affect its earnings, which could have a material adverse effect on Microphase’s business, results of operations and financial condition. Microphase’s backlog as of December 31, 2019 was approximately $6.4 million. Microphase’s backlog could be adversely affected if contracts are modified or terminated.

 

Microphase’s products with military applications are subject to export regulations, and compliance with these regulations may be costly.

 

Microphase is required to obtain export licenses before filling foreign orders for many of its products that have military or other governmental applications. United States Export Administration regulations control technology exports like its products for reasons of national security and compliance with foreign policy, to guarantee domestic reserves of products in short supply and, under certain circumstances, for the security of a destination country. Thus, any foreign sales of its products requiring export licenses must comply with these general policies. Compliance with these regulations is costly, and these regulations are subject to change, and any such change may require Microphase to improve its technologies, incur expenses or both in order to comply with such regulations.

 

Microphase depends on U.S. government contracts issued to major defense contractors, which often are only partially funded, subject to immediate termination, and heavily regulated and audited. The termination or failure to fund, or negative audit findings for, one or more of these contracts could have an adverse impact on Microphase’s business. 

 

Over its lifetime, a U.S. Government program awarded to a major defense contractor may be implemented by the award of many different individual contracts and subcontracts. The funding of U.S. Government programs is subject to Congressional appropriations. Although multi-year contracts may be authorized and appropriated in connection with major procurements, Congress generally appropriates funds on a fiscal year basis. Procurement funds are typically made available for obligations over the course of one to three years. Consequently, programs often receive only partial funding initially, and additional funds are designated only as Congress authorizes further appropriations. The termination of funding for a U.S. Government program with respect to major defense contractors for which Microphase is a subcontractor would result in a loss of anticipated future revenue attributable to that program, which could have an adverse impact on its operations. In addition, the termination of, or failure to commit additional funds to, a program for which Microphase is a subcontractor could result in lost revenue and increase its overall costs of doing business. 

 

Generally, U.S. Government contracts are subject to oversight audits by U.S. Government representatives. Such audits could result in adjustments to Microphase’s contract costs. Any costs found to be improperly allocated to a specific contract will not be reimbursed, and such costs already reimbursed must be refunded. Microphase has recorded contract revenues based on costs Microphase expect to realize upon final audit. However, Microphase does not know the outcome of any future audits and adjustments, and Microphase may be required to materially reduce its revenues or profits upon completion and final negotiation of audits. Negative audit findings could also result in termination of a contract, forfeiture of profits, suspension of payments, fines and suspension or debarment from U.S. Government contracting or subcontracting for a period of time.

 

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In addition, U.S. Government contracts generally contain provisions permitting termination, in whole or in part, without prior notice at the U.S. Government’s convenience upon the payment only for work done and commitments made at the time of termination. Microphase can give no assurance that one or more of the U.S. Government contracts with a major defense contractor under which Microphase provides component products will not be terminated under these circumstances. Also, Microphase can give no assurance that it will be able to procure new contracts to offset the revenue or backlog lost as a result of any termination of its U.S. Government contracts. Because a significant portion of Microphase’s revenue is dependent on its performance and payment under its U.S. Government contracts, the loss of one or more large contracts could have a material adverse impact on its business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. 

 

Microphase’s government business also is subject to specific procurement regulations and other requirements. These requirements, though customary in U.S. Government contracts, increase its performance and compliance costs. In addition, these costs might increase in the future, thereby reducing Microphase’s margins, which could have an adverse effect on its business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows. Failure to comply with these regulations and requirements could lead to fines, penalties, repayments, or compensatory or treble damages, or suspension or debarment from U.S. Government contracting or subcontracting for a period of time. Among the causes for debarment are violations of various laws, including those related to procurement integrity, export control, U.S. Government security regulations, employment practices, protection of the environment, accuracy of records, proper recording of costs and foreign corruption. The termination of a U.S. Government contract or relationship as a result of any of these acts would have an adverse impact on Microphase’s operations and could have an adverse effect on its standing and eligibility for future U.S. Government contracts.

  

Microphase’s business could be negatively impacted by cybersecurity threats and other security threats and disruptions.

 

As a U.S. Government defense contractor, Microphase faces certain security threats, including threats to its information technology infrastructure, attempts to gain access to its proprietary or classified information, threats to physical security, and domestic terrorism events. Microphase’s information technology networks and related systems are critical to the operation of its business and essential to its ability to successfully perform day-to-day operations. Microphase is also involved with information technology systems for certain customers and other third parties, which generally face similar security threats. Cybersecurity threats in particular, are persistent, evolve quickly and include, but are not limited to, computer viruses, attempts to access information, denial of service and other electronic security breaches. Microphase believes that it has implemented appropriate measures and controls and has invested in skilled information technology resources to appropriately identify threats and mitigate potential risks, but there can be no assurance that such actions will be sufficient to prevent disruptions to mission critical systems, the unauthorized release of confidential information or corruption of data. A security breach or other significant disruption involving these types of information and information technology networks and related systems could:

 

disrupt the proper functioning of these networks and systems and therefore its operations and/or those of certain of its customers;

 

result in the unauthorized access to, and destruction, loss, theft, misappropriation or release of, proprietary, confidential, sensitive or otherwise valuable information of Microphase or its customers, including trade secrets, which others could use to compete against Microphase or for disruptive, destructive or otherwise harmful purposes and outcomes;

 

compromise national security and other sensitive government functions;

 

require significant management attention and resources to remedy the damages that result;

 

subject Microphase to claims for breach of contract, damages, credits, penalties or termination; and

 

damage Microphase’s reputation with its customers (particularly agencies of the U.S. Government) and the public generally.

 

Any or all of the foregoing could have a negative impact on its business, financial condition, results of operations and cash flows.

 

Microphase enters into fixed-price contracts that could subject it to losses in the event of cost overruns or a significant increase in inflation.

 

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Microphase has a number of fixed-price contracts which allow it to benefit from cost savings but subject it to the risk of potential cost overruns, particularly for firm fixed-price contracts, because Microphase assumes the entire cost burden. If its initial estimates are incorrect, Microphase can lose money on these contracts. U.S. Government contracts can expose Microphase to potentially large losses because the U.S. Government can hold Microphase responsible for completing a project or, in certain circumstances, paying the entire cost of its replacement by another provider regardless of the size or foreseeability of any cost overruns that occur over the life of the contract. Because many of these contracts involve new technologies and applications, unforeseen events such as technological difficulties, fluctuations in the price of raw materials, problems with its suppliers and cost overruns, can result in the contractual price becoming less favorable or even unprofitable to Microphase. The U.S. and other countries also may experience a significant increase in inflation. A significant increase in inflation rates could have a significant adverse impact on the profitability of these contracts. Furthermore, if Microphase does not meet contract deadlines or specifications, Microphase may need to renegotiate contracts on less favorable terms, be forced to pay penalties or liquidated damages or suffer major losses if the customer exercises its right to terminate. In addition, some of its contracts have provisions relating to cost controls and audit rights, and if Microphase fails to meet the terms specified in those contracts Microphase may not realize their full benefits. Microphase’s results of operations are dependent on its ability to maximize its earnings from its contracts. Cost overruns could have an adverse impact on its financial results. 

 

Risks Related to Our Business and Industry - Enertec

 

 Potential political, economic and military instability in Israel could adversely affect our operations.

 

Enertec’s operating facilities are located in Israel. Accordingly, political, economic and military conditions in Israel directly affect Enertec’s operations. Since the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948, a number of armed conflicts have taken place between Israel and its Arab neighbors. A state of hostility, varying in degree and intensity, has led to security and economic problems for Israel. Since October 2000, there has been an increase in hostilities between Israel and the Palestinian Arabs, which has adversely affected the peace process and has negatively influenced Israel’s relationship with its Arab citizens and several Arab countries, including the Israel-Gaza conflict. Such ongoing hostilities may hinder Israel’s international trade relations and may limit the geographic markets where Enertec can sell its products and solutions. Hostilities involving or threatening Israel, or the interruption or curtailment of trade between Israel and its present trading partners, could materially and adversely affect Enertec’s operations.

 

In addition, Israel-based companies and companies doing business with Israel have been the subject of an economic boycott by members of the Arab League and certain other predominantly Muslim countries since Israel’s establishment. Although Israel has entered into various agreements with certain Arab countries and the Palestinian Authority, and various declarations have been signed in connection with efforts to resolve some of the economic and political problems in the Middle East, we cannot predict whether or in what manner these problems will be resolved. Wars and acts of terrorism have resulted in significant damage to the Israeli economy, including reducing the level of foreign and local investment.

 

Furthermore, certain of our officers and employees may be obligated to perform annual reserve duty in the Israel Defense Forces and are subject to being called up for active military duty at any time. All Israeli male citizens who have served in the army are subject to an obligation to perform reserve duty until they are between 40 and 49 years old, depending upon the nature of their military service.

 

Enertec may become subject to claims for remuneration or royalties for assigned service invention rights by its employees, which could result in litigation and harm our business.

 

A significant portion of the intellectual property covered by Enertec’s products has been developed by Enertec’s employees in the course of their employment for Enertec. Under the Israeli Patent Law, 5727-1967, or the Patent Law, and recent decisions by the Israeli Supreme Court and the Israeli Compensation and Royalties Committee, a body constituted under the Patent Law, Israeli employees may be entitled to remuneration for intellectual property that they develop for us unless they explicitly waive any such rights. To the extent that Enertec is unable to enter into agreements with its future employees pursuant to which they agree that any inventions created in the scope of their employment or engagement are owned exclusively by Enertec (as it has done in the past), Enertec may face claims demanding remuneration. As a consequence of such claims, Enertec could be required to pay additional remuneration or royalties to its current and former employees, or be forced to litigate such claims, which could negatively affect its business.

 

 Risks Related to Ownership of Our Common Stock and this Offering

 

If we do not continue to satisfy the NYSE American continued listing requirements, our common stock could be delisted from NYSE American.

 

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The listing of our common stock on the NYSE American is contingent on our compliance with the NYSE American’s conditions for continued listing. On July 24, 2020, we were notified by the NYSE American that we were no longer in compliance with the NYSE American continued listing standards because our reported stockholders' equity was below continued listing standards. The NYSE American requires that a listed company's stockholders' equity be $6.0 million or more if it has reported losses from continuing operations and/or net losses in its five most recent fiscal years.

 

Following submission of our compliance plan demonstrating how we intend to regain compliance with the continued listing standards, we were notified on October 8, 2020, that the NYSE American granted us a listing extension on the basis of our plan until January 24, 2022. We are subject to periodic review by NYSE American staff during the extension period. Failure to make progress consistent with the plan or to regain compliance with the continued listing standards by the end of the extension period could result in our common stock being delisted from the NYSE American.

 

On January 4, 2021, we were notified by the NYSE American we failed to comply with the NYSE American continued listing standards because of our inability to hold an annual meeting of stockholders no later than one year after the end of our last fiscal year.

 

In light of our continued losses and inability to obtain quorum for our annual meeting, there is no assurance that we will be able to regain compliance with the NYSE American continued listing standards. If we fail to meet the NYSE American listing requirement, we may be subject to delisting by the NYSE American. In the event our common stock is no longer listed for trading on the NYSE American, our trading volume and share price may decrease and we may experience further difficulties in raising capital which could materially affect our operations and financial results. Further, delisting from the NYSE American could also have other negative effects, including potential loss of confidence by partners, lenders, suppliers and employees and could also trigger various defaults under our lending agreements and other outstanding agreements. Finally, delisting could make it harder for us to raise capital and sell securities.

 

You may experience future dilution as a result of future equity offerings.

 

In order to raise additional capital, we may in the future offer additional shares of our common stock or other securities convertible into or exchangeable for our common stock at prices that may not be the same as the price per share in this offering. We may sell shares or other securities in any other offering at a price per share that is less than the price per share paid by investors in this offering, and investors purchasing shares or other securities in the future could have rights superior to existing stockholders. The price per share at which we sell additional shares of our common stock, or securities convertible or exchangeable into common stock, in future transactions may be higher or lower than the price per share paid by investors in this offering.

 

Our common stock price is volatile.

 

Our common stock is listed on the NYSE American. In the past, our trading price has fluctuated widely, depending on many factors that may have little to do with our operations or business prospects. The exercise of outstanding options and warrants may adversely affect our stock price and a stockholder’s percentage of ownership. As of December 31, 2020, we had outstanding options to purchase an aggregate of 950 shares of common stock, with a weighted average exercise price of $564.32 per share, exercisable at prices ranging from $480 to $1,352 per share and warrants to purchase up to 3,316,034 shares of common stock, with a weighted average exercise price of $6.31 per share, at exercise prices ranging from $0.88 to $2,000 per share. 

 

On April 2, 2019, pursuant to the underwriting agreement with A.G.P./Alliance Global Partners entered into on March 29, 2019, as referenced above, we issued an aggregate of 793,325 shares of common stock, including shares of common stock underlying warrants. The sale of these shares of our common stock, including those underlying the warrants (assuming exercise thereof), has had a material and adverse effect on the market price of our common stock.

 

In addition, we have previously agreed to register shares of common stock, and common stock underlying outstanding warrants and convertible debt in connection with private placement of our securities that are not being registered in this prospectus. Our shares of common stock are thinly traded. Therefore, the resale of a large number of shares of common stock and common stock underlying warrants and convertible debt by the selling stockholders may adversely affect the market price of our common stock. 

 

Volatility in our common stock price may subject us to securities litigation.

 

Stock markets, in general, have experienced, and continue to experience, significant price and volume volatility, and the market price of our common stock may continue to be subject to similar market fluctuations unrelated to our operating performance or prospects. This increased volatility, coupled with depressed economic conditions, could continue to have a depressing effect on the market price of our common stock. The following factors, many of which are beyond our control, may influence our stock price:

 

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the status of our growth strategy including the development of new products with any proceeds we may be able to raise in the future;

 

announcements of technological or competitive developments;

 

regulatory developments affecting us, our customers or our competitors;

 

announcements regarding patent or other intellectual property litigation or the issuance of patents to us or our competitors or updates with respect to the enforceability of patents or other intellectual property rights generally in the US or internationally;

 

actual or anticipated fluctuations in our quarterly operating results;

 

changes in financial estimates by securities research analysts;

 

changes in the economic performance or market valuations of our competitors;

 

additions or departures of our executive officers; and

 

sales or perceived sales of additional shares of our common stock.

 

In addition, the securities markets have, from time to time, experienced significant price and volume fluctuations that are not related to the operating performance of particular companies. Any of these factors could result in large and sudden changes in the volume and trading price of our common stock and could cause our stockholders to incur substantial losses. In the past, following periods of volatility in the market price of a company’s securities, stockholders have often instituted securities class action litigation against that company. If we were involved in a class action suit or other securities litigation, it would divert the attention of our senior management, require us to incur significant expense and, whether or not adversely determined, have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, results of operations and prospects.

 

We have a substantial number of convertible notes, warrants, options and preferred stock outstanding that could affect our price.

 

Due to a number of financings, we have a substantial number of shares that are subject to issuance pursuant to outstanding convertible debt, warrants and options. These conversion prices and exercise prices range from $0.88 to $2,000 per share of common stock. As of the date of this prospectus, the number of shares of common stock subject to convertible notes, warrants, options and preferred stock were 440,862, 3,316,034, 950 and 2,232, respectively. The issuance of common stock pursuant to convertible notes, warrants, options and preferred stock at conversion or exercise prices less than market prices may have the effect of limiting an increase in market price of our common stock until all of these underling shares have been issued. 

 

The issuance of shares of our Class B Common Stock to our management or others could provide such persons with voting control leaving our other stockholders unable to elect our directors and the holders of our shares of common stock will have little influence over our Management.

 

Although there are currently no shares of our Class B Common Stock issued and outstanding, our certificate of incorporation authorizes the issuance of 25,000,000 shares of Class B Common Stock. Each share of Class B Common Stock provides the holder thereof with ten (10) votes on all matters submitted to a stockholder vote. Our certificate of incorporation does not provide for cumulative voting for the election of directors. Any person or group who controls or can obtain more than 50% of the votes cast for the election of each director will control the election of directors and the other stockholders will not be able to elect any directors or exert any influence over management decisions. As a result of the super-voting rights of our shares of Class B Common Stock, the issuance of such shares to our management or others could provide such persons with voting control and our other stockholders will not be able to elect our directors and will have little influence over our management. While we are listed on the NYSE American or any other national securities exchange it is highly unlikely that we would issue any shares of Class B Common Stock as doing so would jeopardize our continued listing any such exchange. However, if were to be delisted for some other reason and our shares of Class A Common Stock trade on an over-the-counter market, then we would face no restriction on issuing shares of Class B Common Stock.

 

We have a number of shares of common stock subject to registration rights.

 

Due to a number of financings, we have contractually agreed to register with the SEC shares of common stock, and common stock underlying outstanding warrants and convertible debt in connection with private placements of our securities. The potential resale at the same time of a large number of shares of common stock and common stock underlying warrants and convertible debt by the selling stockholders may adversely affect the market price of our common stock.

 

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The rights of the holders of common stock may be impaired by the potential issuance of preferred stock.

 

Our certificate of incorporation gives our board of directors the right to create new series of preferred stock. As a result, the board of directors may, without stockholder approval, issue preferred stock with voting, dividend, conversion, liquidation or other rights which could adversely affect the voting power and equity interest of the holders of common stock. Preferred stock, which could be issued with the right to more than one vote per share, could be utilized as a method of discouraging, delaying or preventing a change of control. The possible impact on takeover attempts could adversely affect the price of our common stock. Although we have no present intention to issue any shares of preferred stock or to create a series of preferred stock, we may issue such shares in the future.  

 

The requirements of being a public company may strain our resources, divert management’s attention and affect our ability to attract and retain qualified board members.

 

We are a public company and subject to the reporting requirements of the Exchange Act, and the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002. The Exchange Act requires, among other things, that we file annual, quarterly and current reports with respect to our business and financial condition. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires, among other things, that we maintain effective disclosure controls and procedures and internal controls for financial reporting. For example, Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires that our management report on the effectiveness of our internal controls structure and procedures for financial reporting. Section 404 compliance may divert internal resources and will take a significant amount of time and effort to complete. If we fail to maintain compliance under Section 404, or if in the future management determines that our internal control over financial reporting are not effective as defined under Section 404, we could be subject to sanctions or investigations by the NYSE American should we in the future be listed on this market, the SEC, or other regulatory authorities. Furthermore, investor perceptions of our company may suffer, and this could cause a decline in the market price of our common stock. Any failure of our internal controls could have a material adverse effect on our stated results of operations and harm our reputation. If we are unable to implement these changes effectively or efficiently, it could harm our operations, financial reporting or financial results and could result in an adverse opinion on internal controls from our independent auditors. We may need to hire a number of additional employees with public accounting and disclosure experience in order to meet our ongoing obligations as a public company, particularly if we become fully subject to Section 404 and its auditor attestation requirements, which will increase costs. Our management team and other personnel will need to devote a substantial amount of time to new compliance initiatives and to meeting the obligations that are associated with being a public company, which may divert attention from other business concerns, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

 

If we fail to comply with the rules under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 related to accounting controls and procedures, or if we discover material weaknesses and deficiencies in our internal control and accounting procedures, our stock price could decline significantly and raising capital could be more difficult.

 

If we fail to comply with the rules under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002 related to disclosure controls and procedures, or, if we discover material weaknesses and other deficiencies in our internal control and accounting procedures, our stock price could decline significantly and raising capital could be more difficult. Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act requires annual management assessments of the effectiveness of our internal control over financial reporting. If material weaknesses or significant deficiencies are discovered or if we otherwise fail to achieve and maintain the adequacy of our internal control, we may not be able to ensure that we can conclude on an ongoing basis that we have effective internal controls over financial reporting in accordance with Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act. Moreover, effective internal controls are necessary for us to produce reliable financial reports and are important to helping prevent financial fraud. If we cannot provide reliable financial reports or prevent fraud, our business and operating results could be harmed, investors could lose confidence in our reported financial information, and the trading price of our common stock could drop significantly.

 

If securities or industry analysts do not publish research or reports about our business, or if they change their recommendations regarding our stock adversely, our stock price and trading volume could decline.

 

The trading market for our common stock will be influenced by the research and reports that industry or securities analysts publish about us or our business. Our research coverage by industry and financial analysts is currently limited. Even if our analyst coverage increases, if one or more of the analysts who cover us downgrade our stock, our stock price would likely decline. If one or more of these analysts cease coverage of our company or fail to regularly publish reports on us, we could lose visibility in the financial markets, which in turn could cause our stock price or trading volume to decline.

 

The elimination of monetary liability against our directors, officers and employees under law and the existence of indemnification rights for or obligations to our directors, officers and employees may result in substantial expenditures by us and may discourage lawsuits against our directors, officers and employees. 

 

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Our certificate of incorporation contains a provision permitting us to eliminate the personal liability of our directors to us and our stockholders for damages for the breach of a fiduciary duty as a director or officer to the extent provided by Delaware law. We may also have contractual indemnification obligations under any future employment agreements with our officers. The foregoing indemnification obligations could result in us incurring substantial expenditures to cover the cost of settlement or damage awards against directors and officers, which we may be unable to recoup. These provisions and the resulting costs may also discourage us from bringing a lawsuit against directors and officers for breaches of their fiduciary duties, and may similarly discourage the filing of derivative litigation by our stockholders against our directors and officers even though such actions, if successful, might otherwise benefit us and our stockholders. 

 

We do not anticipate paying dividends on our common stock and, accordingly, stockholders must rely on stock appreciation for any return on their investment.

 

We have never declared or paid cash dividends on our common stock and do not expect to do so in the foreseeable future. The declaration of dividends is subject to the discretion of our board of directors and will depend on various factors, including our operating results, financial condition, future prospects and any other factors deemed relevant by our board of directors. You should not rely on an investment in our company if you require dividend income from your investment in our company. The success of your investment will likely depend entirely upon any future appreciation of the market price of our common stock, which is uncertain and unpredictable. There is no guarantee that our common stock will appreciate in value.

 

 

 

USE OF PROCEEDS

 

Except as otherwise provided in the applicable prospectus supplement, we intend to use the net proceeds from the sale of the securities offered by this prospectus for general corporate purposes, which may include working capital, capital expenditures, research and development expenditures, regulatory affairs expenditures, clinical trial expenditures, acquisitions of new technologies and investments, the financing of possible acquisitions or business expansions, and the repayment, refinancing, redemption or repurchase of future indebtedness or capital stock.

 

The intended application of proceeds from the sale of any particular offering of securities using this prospectus will be described in the accompanying prospectus supplement relating to such offering. The precise amount and timing of the application of these proceeds will depend on our funding requirements and the availability and costs of other funds.

 

 

THE SECURITIES WE MAY OFFER

 

The descriptions of the securities contained in this prospectus, together with the applicable prospectus supplements, summarize all the material terms and provisions of the various types of securities that we may offer. We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to any securities the particular terms of the securities offered by that prospectus supplement. If we indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, the terms of the securities may differ from the terms we have summarized below. We will also include in the prospectus supplement information, where applicable, about material United States federal income tax considerations relating to the securities, and the securities exchange, if any, on which the securities will be listed.

 

We may sell from time to time, in one or more offerings:

 

shares of our common stock;

 

shares of our preferred stock;

 

debt securities;

 

warrants to purchase shares of our common stock or preferred stock;

 

rights to purchase shares of our common stock; and/or
units consisting of any of the securities listed above.

 

The terms of any securities we offer will be determined at the time of sale. We may issue securities that are exchangeable for or convertible into common stock or any of the other securities that may be sold under this prospectus. When particular securities are offered, a supplement to this prospectus will be filed with the Commission, which will describe the terms of the offering and sale of the offered securities.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF CAPITAL STOCK

 

The following is a summary of all material characteristics of our capital stock as set forth in our articles of incorporation and bylaws. The summary does not purport to be complete and is qualified in its entirety by reference to our certificate of incorporation and bylaws, and to the provisions of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware, as amended.

 

We are authorized to issue 500,000,000 shares of Class A Common Stock and 25,000,000 shares of Class B Common Stock, par value $0.001 per share.  As of the date of this prospectus, there were 27,753,562 shares of our Class A Common Stock issued and outstanding but no shares of Class B common stock issued or outstanding. The outstanding shares of our common stock are validly issued, fully paid and nonassessable. In this prospectus, all references solely to “common stock” shall refer to the Class A Common Stock except where otherwise indicated.  In this prospectus, all references solely to “common stock” shall refer to both the Class A Common Stock and the Class B Common Stock except where otherwise indicated. We are authorized to issue up to 25,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.001 per share.  Of these shares of preferred stock, 1,000,000 are designated as Series A Convertible Preferred Stock, 500,000 are designated as Series B Convertible Preferred Stock, and 2,500 are designated as Series C Convertible Redeemable Preferred Stock. As of the date of this prospectus, there were 7,040 shares of Series A Convertible Preferred Stock outstanding, 125,000 shares of Series B Convertible Preferred Stock and no shares of Series C Convertible Redeemable Preferred Stock outstanding.

 

Common Stock

 

Holders of our shares of Class A Common Stock are entitled to one vote for each share on all matters submitted to a shareholder vote. Holders of our shares Class B common stock are entitled to ten votes for each share on all matters submitted to a shareholder vote. Holders of our common stock do not have cumulative voting rights. Therefore, holders of a majority of the shares of our common stock voting for the election of directors can elect all of the directors. Holders of our common stock representing a majority of the voting power of our capital stock issued, outstanding and entitled to vote, represented in person or by proxy, are necessary to constitute a quorum at any meeting of shareholders. A vote by the holders of a majority of our outstanding shares is required to effectuate certain fundamental corporate changes such as liquidation, merger or an amendment to our certificate of incorporation.

 

Holders of our common stock are entitled to share in all dividends that our Board of Directors, in its discretion, declares from legally available funds. In the event of a liquidation, dissolution or winding up, each outstanding share entitles its holder to participate pro rata in all assets that remain after payment of liabilities and after providing for each class of stock, if any, having preference over our common stock. Our common stock has no preemptive, subscription or conversion rights and there are no redemption provisions applicable to our common stock.

 

Preferred Stock

 

We are authorized to issue up to 25,000,000 shares of preferred stock, par value $0.001 per share. Of these shares of preferred stock, 1,000,000 are designated as Series A Redeemable Convertible Preferred Stock; 500,000 are designated as Series B Redeemable Convertible Preferred Stock; 2,500 shares are designated as Series C Redeemable Convertible Preferred Stock. As of December 31, 2020, there were 7,040 shares of Series A Redeemable Convertible Preferred Stock outstanding; 125,000 shares of Series B Redeemable Convertible Preferred Stock outstanding and no shares of Series C Redeemable Convertible Preferred Stock outstanding.

 

The shares of preferred stock may be issued in series, and shall have such voting powers, full or limited, or no voting powers, and such designations, preferences and relative participating, optional or other special rights, and qualifications, limitations or restrictions thereof, as shall be stated and expressed in the resolution or resolutions providing for the issuance of such stock adopted from time to time by the board of directors. The board of directors is expressly vested with the authority to determine and fix in the resolution or resolutions providing for the issuances of preferred stock the voting powers, designations, preferences and rights, and the qualifications, limitations or restrictions thereof, of each such series to the full extent now or hereafter permitted by the laws of the State of Delaware.

 

The authorized shares of preferred stock will be available for issuance without further action by our stockholders unless such action is required by applicable law or the rules of any stock exchange or automated quotation system on which our securities may be listed or traded. The NYSE American currently requires stockholder approval as a prerequisite to listing shares in several circumstances, including, in certain circumstances, where the issuance of shares could result in an increase in the number of shares of common stock outstanding, or in the amount of voting securities outstanding, of at least 20%.

 

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Transfer Agent and Registrar

 

The Transfer Agent and Registrar for our common stock is Computershare, 8742 Lucent Blvd., Suite 225, Highlands Ranch, CO 80129.

 

DESCRIPTION OF DEBT SECURITIES

 

As used in this prospectus, debt securities means the debentures, notes, bonds and other evidences of indebtedness that DPW may issue from time to time. Debt securities offered by this prospectus will be either senior debt securities or subordinated debt securities. Senior debt securities will be issued under a “Senior Indenture” and subordinated debt securities will be issued under a “Subordinated Indenture.” This prospectus sometimes refers to the Senior Indenture and the Subordinated Indenture collectively as the “Indentures.”

 

The form of Senior Indenture and the form of the Subordinated Indenture are filed as exhibits to the registration statement. The statements and descriptions in this prospectus or in any prospectus supplement regarding provisions of the Indentures and debt securities are summaries thereof, do not purport to be complete and are subject to, and are qualified in their entirety by reference to, all of the provisions of the Indentures and debt securities, including the definitions therein of certain terms.

 

General

 

Debt securities will be direct unsecured obligations of DPW Senior debt securities will rank equally with all of DPW’s other senior and unsubordinated debt. The subordinated debt securities will be subordinate and junior in right of payment to all of DPW’s present and future senior indebtedness.

 

Because DPW is principally a holding company, its right to participate in any distribution of assets of any subsidiary, upon the subsidiary’s liquidation or reorganization or otherwise, is subject to the prior claims of creditors of the subsidiary, except to the extent DPW may be recognized as a creditor of that subsidiary. Accordingly, DPW’s obligations under debt securities will be structurally subordinated to all existing and future indebtedness and liabilities of its subsidiaries, and holders of debt securities should look only to DPW’s assets for payment thereunder.

 

The Indentures do not limit the aggregate principal amount of debt securities that DPW may issue and provide that DPW may issue debt securities from time to time in one or more series, in each case with the same or various maturities, at par or at a discount. DPW may issue additional debt securities of a particular series without the consent of the holders of debt securities of such series outstanding at the time of the issuance. Any such additional debt securities, together with all other outstanding debt securities of that series, will constitute a single series of debt securities under the applicable Indenture. The Indentures also do not limit our ability to incur other debt, except as described under “Restrictive Covenants” herein.

 

Each prospectus supplement will describe the terms relating to the specific series of debt securities being offered. These terms will include some or all of the following:

 

the title of debt securities and whether they are subordinated debt securities or senior debt securities;

 

any limit on the aggregate principal amount of such debt securities;

 

the price or prices at which DPW will sell such debt securities;

 

the maturity date or dates of such debt securities;

 

the rate or rates of interest, if any, which may be fixed or variable, at which such debt securities will bear interest, or the method of determining such rate or rates, if any;

 

the date or dates from which any interest will accrue or the method by which such date or dates will be determined;

 

the right, if any, to extend the interest payment periods and the duration of any such deferral period, including the maximum consecutive period during which interest payment periods may be extended;

 

whether the amount of payments of principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on such debt securities may be determined with reference to any index, formula or other method, such as one or more currencies, commodities, equity indices or other indices, and the manner of determining the amount of such payments;

 

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the dates on which DPW will pay interest on such debt securities and the regular record date for determining who is entitled to the interest payable on any interest payment date;

 

whether the debt securities will be secured or unsecured;

 

the place or places where the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on such debt securities will be payable;

 

if DPW possesses the option to do so, the periods within which and the prices at which DPW may redeem such debt securities, in whole or in part, pursuant to optional redemption provisions, and the other terms and conditions of any such provisions;

 

DPW’s obligation, if any, to redeem, repay or purchase such debt securities by making periodic payments to a sinking fund or through an analogous provision or at the option of holders of the debt securities, and the period or periods within which and the price or prices at which DPW will redeem, repay or purchase such debt securities, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation, and the other terms and conditions of such obligation;

 

the denominations in which such debt securities will be issued, if other than denominations of $1,000 and integral multiples of $1,000;

 

the portion, or methods of determining the portion, of the principal amount of such debt securities which DPW must pay upon the acceleration of the maturity of the debt securities in connection with an Event of Default (as described below), if other than the full principal amount;

 

the currency, currencies or currency unit in which DPW will pay the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest, if any, on such debt securities, if not United States dollars;

 

provisions, if any, granting special rights to holders of such debt securities upon the occurrence of specified events;

 

any deletions from, modifications of or additions to the Events of Default or DPW’s covenants with respect to the applicable series of debt securities, and whether or not such Events of Default or covenants are consistent with those contained in the applicable Indenture;

 

the application, if any, of the terms of the Indentures relating to defeasance and covenant defeasance (which terms are described below) to such debt securities;

 

whether the subordination provisions summarized below or different subordination provisions will apply to such debt securities;

 

the terms, if any, upon which the holders may convert or exchange such debt securities into or for DPW’s common stock, preferred stock or other securities or property;

 

whether any of such debt securities will be issued in global form and, if so, the terms and conditions upon which global debt securities may be exchanged for certificated debt securities;

 

any change in the right of the trustee or the requisite holders of such debt securities to declare the principal amount thereof due and payable because of an Event of Default;

 

the depositary for global or certificated debt securities;

 

any special tax implications of such debt securities;

 

any trustees, authenticating or paying agents, transfer agents or registrars or other agents with respect to such debt securities; and

 

any other terms of such debt securities.

 

Unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, debt securities will not be listed on any securities exchange.

 

Unless otherwise specified in the applicable prospectus supplement, debt securities will be issued in fully-registered form without coupons.

 

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Debt securities may be sold at a substantial discount below their stated principal amount, bearing no interest or interest at a rate which at the time of issuance is below market rates. The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the federal income tax consequences and special considerations applicable to any such debt securities. Debt securities may also be issued as indexed securities or securities denominated in foreign currencies, currency units or composite currencies, as described in more detail in the prospectus supplement relating to any of the particular debt securities. The prospectus supplement relating to specific debt securities will also describe any special considerations and certain additional tax considerations applicable to such debt securities.

 

Subordination

 

The prospectus supplement relating to any offering of subordinated debt securities will describe the specific subordination provisions. However, unless otherwise noted in the prospectus supplement, subordinated debt securities will be subordinate and junior in right of payment to all of DPW’s Senior Indebtedness, to the extent and in the manner set forth in the Subordinated Indenture.

 

Under the Subordinated Indenture, “Senior Indebtedness” means all obligations of DPW in respect of any of the following, whether outstanding at the date of execution of the Subordinated Indenture or thereafter incurred or created:

 

the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest due on indebtedness of DPW for borrowed money;

 

all obligations guaranteed by DPW for the repayment of borrowed money, whether or not evidenced by bonds, debentures, notes or other written instruments;

 

all obligations guaranteed by DPW evidenced by bonds, debentures, notes or similar written instruments, including obligations assumed or incurred in connection with the acquisition of property, assets or businesses (provided, however, that the deferred purchase price of any other business or property or assets shall not be considered indebtedness if the purchase price thereof is payable in full within 90 days from the date on which such indebtedness was created);

 

any obligations of DPW as lessee under leases required to be capitalized on the balance sheet of the lessee under generally accepted accounting principles;

 

all obligations of DPW for the reimbursement on any letter of credit, banker’s acceptance, security purchase facility or similar credit transaction;

 

all obligations of DPW in respect of interest rate swap, cap or other agreements, interest rate future or options contracts, currency swap agreements, currency future or option contracts and other similar agreements;

 

all obligations of the types referred to above of other persons for the payment of which DPW is responsible or liable as obligor, guarantor or otherwise; and

 

all obligations of the types referred to above of other persons secured by any lien on any property or asset of DPW (whether or not such obligation is assumed by DPW).

 

Senior Indebtedness does not include:

 

indebtedness or monetary obligations to trade creditors created or assumed by DPW in the ordinary course of business in connection with the obtaining of materials or services;

 

indebtedness that is by its terms subordinated to or ranks equal with the subordinated debt securities; and

 

any indebtedness of DPW to its affiliates (including all debt securities and guarantees in respect of those debt securities issued to any trust, partnership or other entity affiliated with DPW that is a financing vehicle of DPW in connection with the issuance by such financing entity of preferred securities or other securities guaranteed by DPW) unless otherwise expressly provided in the terms of any such indebtedness.

 

Senior Indebtedness shall continue to be Senior Indebtedness and be entitled to the benefits of the subordination provisions irrespective of any amendment, modification or waiver of any term of such Senior Indebtedness.

 

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Unless otherwise noted in the accompanying prospectus supplement, if DPW defaults in the payment of any principal of (or premium, if any) or interest on any Senior Indebtedness when it becomes due and payable, whether at maturity or at a date fixed for prepayment or by declaration or otherwise, then, unless and until such default is cured or waived or ceases to exist, DPW will make no direct or indirect payment (in cash, property, securities, by set-off or otherwise) in respect of the principal of or interest on the subordinated debt securities or in respect of any redemption, retirement, purchase or other requisition of any of the subordinated debt securities.

 

In the event of the acceleration of the maturity of any subordinated debt securities, the holders of all senior debt securities outstanding at the time of such acceleration will first be entitled to receive payment in full of all amounts due on senior debt securities before the holders of subordinated debt securities will be entitled to receive any payment of principal (and premium, if any) or interest on the subordinated debt securities.

 

If any of the following events occurs, DPW will pay in full all Senior Indebtedness before it makes any payment or distribution under subordinated debt securities, whether in cash, securities or other property, to any holder of subordinated debt securities:

 

any dissolution or winding-up or liquidation or reorganization of DPW, whether voluntary or involuntary or in bankruptcy, insolvency or receivership;

 

any general assignment by DPW for the benefit of creditors; or

 

any other marshaling of DPW’s assets or liabilities.

 

In such event, any payment or distribution under subordinated debt securities, whether in cash, securities or other property, which would otherwise (but for the subordination provisions) be payable or deliverable in respect of such subordinated debt securities, will be paid or delivered directly to the holders of Senior Indebtedness in accordance with the priorities then existing among such holders until all Senior Indebtedness has been paid in full. If any payment or distribution under subordinated debt securities is received by the trustee of any subordinated debt securities in contravention of any of the terms of the Subordinated Indenture and before all the Senior Indebtedness has been paid in full, such payment or distribution or security will be received in trust for the benefit of, and paid over or delivered and transferred to, the holders of Senior Indebtedness at the time outstanding in accordance with the priorities then existing among such holders for application to the payment of all Senior Indebtedness remaining unpaid to the extent necessary to pay all such Senior Indebtedness in full.

 

The Subordinated Indenture does not limit the issuance of additional Senior Indebtedness.

 

If subordinated debt securities are issued to a trust in connection with the issuance of trust preferred securities, such subordinated debt securities may thereafter be distributed pro rata to the holders of such trust securities in connection with the dissolution of such trust upon the occurrence of certain events described in the applicable prospectus supplement.

 

Restrictive Covenants

 

Unless an accompanying prospectus supplement states otherwise, the following restrictive covenant shall apply to each series of senior debt securities:

 

Limitation on Liens. So long as any senior debt securities are outstanding, neither DPW nor any of its subsidiaries will create, assume, incur or guarantee any indebtedness for money borrowed which is secured by any pledge of, lien on or security interest in any capital stock of its Designated Subsidiaries, other than specified types of permitted liens.

 

However, this restriction will not apply if all debt securities then outstanding and, at our option, any other senior indebtedness ranking equally with such debt securities, are secured at least equally and ratably with the otherwise prohibited secured debt so long as it is outstanding.

 

This limitation shall not apply to debt secured by a pledge of, lien on or security interest in any shares of stock of any subsidiary at the time it becomes a Designated Subsidiary, including any renewals or extensions of such secured debt. “Designated Subsidiary” means any subsidiary of DPW, the consolidated net worth of which represents at least 10% of the consolidated net worth of DPW

 

The Subordinated Indenture does not contain a similar limitation on liens.

 

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Consolidation, Merger, Sale of Assets and Other Transactions

 

DPW may not (i) merge with or into or consolidate with another person or sell, assign, transfer, lease or convey all or substantially all of its properties and assets to, any other person other than a direct or indirect wholly-owned subsidiary of DPW, and (ii) no person may merge with or into or consolidate with DPW or, except for any direct or indirect wholly-owned subsidiary of DPW, sell, assign, transfer, lease or convey all or substantially all of its properties and assets to DPW unless:

 

DPW is the surviving corporation or the person formed by or surviving such merger or consolidation or to which such sale, assignment, transfer, lease or conveyance has been made, if other than DPW, has expressly assumed by supplemental indenture all the obligations of DPW under such debt securities, the Indentures and any guarantees of preferred securities or common securities issued by certain trusts;

 

immediately after giving effect to such transaction, no default or Event of Default has occurred and is continuing; and

 

DPW delivers to the trustee an officers’ certificate and an opinion of counsel, each stating that the supplemental indenture complies with the applicable Indenture.

 

Events of Default, Notice and Waiver

 

Unless an accompanying prospectus supplement states otherwise, the following shall constitute “Events of Default” under the Indentures with respect to each series of debt securities:

 

DPW’s failure to pay any interest on any debt security of such series when due and payable, continued for 30 days;

 

DPW’s failure to pay principal (or premium, if any) on any debt security of such series when due, regardless of whether such payment became due because of maturity, redemption, acceleration or otherwise, or is required by any sinking fund established with respect to such series;

 

DPW’s failure to observe or perform any other of its covenants or agreements with respect to such debt securities for 90 days after it receives notice of such failure;

 

certain defaults with respect to DPW’s debt (other than such debt securities or non-recourse debt) in any aggregate principal amount in excess of $25,000,000 consisting of the failure to make any payment at maturity or that results in acceleration of the maturity of such debt; and

 

certain events of bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization of DPW

 

If an Event of Default with respect to any debt securities of any series outstanding under either of the Indentures shall occur and be continuing, the trustee under such Indenture or the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the debt securities of that series outstanding may declare, by notice as provided in the applicable Indenture, the principal amount (or such lesser amount as may be provided for in the debt securities of that series) of the debt securities of that series outstanding to be due and payable immediately; provided that, in the case of an Event of Default involving certain events in bankruptcy, insolvency or reorganization, acceleration is automatic; and, provided further, that after such acceleration, but before a judgment or decree based on acceleration, the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of that series may, under certain circumstances, rescind and annul such acceleration if all Events of Default, other than the nonpayment of accelerated principal, have been cured or waived.

 

Upon the acceleration of the maturity of original issue discount securities, an amount less than the principal amount thereof will become due and payable.

 

Reference is made to the prospectus supplement relating to any original issue discount securities for the particular provisions relating to acceleration of maturity thereof. Any past default under either Indenture with respect to debt securities of any series, and any Event of Default arising therefrom, may be waived by the holders of a majority in principal amount of all debt securities of such series outstanding under such Indenture, except in the case of (i) default in the payment of the principal of (or premium, if any) or interest on any debt securities of such series or (ii) default in respect of a covenant or provision which may not be amended or modified without the consent of the holder of each outstanding debt security of such series affected.

 

The trustee is required, within 90 days after the occurrence of a default (which is known to the trustee and is continuing), with respect to the debt securities of any series (without regard to any grace period or notice requirements), to give to the holders of debt securities of such series notice of such default; provided, however, that, except in the case of a default in the payment of the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest, or in the payment of any sinking fund installment, on any debt securities of such series, the trustee shall be protected in withholding such notice if it in good faith determines that the withholding of such notice is in the interests of the holders of debt securities of such series.

 

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The trustee, subject to its duties during default to act with the required standard of care, may require indemnification by the holders of debt securities of any series with respect to which a default has occurred before proceeding to exercise any right or power under the Indentures at the request of the holders of debt securities of such series. Subject to such right of indemnification and to certain other limitations, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series under either Indenture may direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the trustee with respect to debt securities of such series.

 

No holder of a debt security of any series may institute any action against DPW under either of the Indentures (except actions for payment of overdue principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on such debt security or for the conversion or exchange of such debt security in accordance with its terms) unless (i) the holder has given to the trustee written notice of an Event of Default and of the continuance thereof with respect to debt securities of such series specifying an Event of Default, as required under the applicable Indenture, (ii) the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of debt securities of that series then outstanding under such Indenture shall have requested the trustee to institute such action and offered to the trustee indemnity reasonably satisfactory to it against the costs, expenses and liabilities to be incurred in compliance with such request and (iii) the trustee shall not have instituted such action within 60 days of such request.

 

DPW is required to furnish annually to the trustee statements as to its compliance with all conditions and covenants under each Indenture.

 

Discharge, Defeasance and Covenant Defeasance

 

If indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, DPW may discharge or defease its obligations under each Indenture as set forth below.

 

DPW may discharge certain obligations to holders of any series of debt securities issued under either the Senior Indenture or the Subordinated Indenture which have not already been delivered to the trustee for cancellation and which have either become due and payable or are by their terms due and payable within one year (or scheduled for redemption within one year) by irrevocably depositing with the trustee cash or, in the case of debt securities payable only in U.S. dollars, U.S. Government Obligations (as defined in either Indenture), as trust funds in an amount certified to be sufficient to pay when due, whether at maturity, upon redemption or otherwise, the principal of (and premium, if any) and interest on such debt securities.

 

If indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, DPW may elect either (i) to defease and be discharged from any and all obligations with respect to debt securities of or within any series (except as otherwise provided in the relevant Indenture) (“defeasance”) or (ii) to be released from its obligations with respect to certain covenants applicable to debt securities of or within any series (“covenant defeasance”), upon the deposit with the relevant Indenture trustee, in trust for such purpose, of money and/or government obligations which through the payment of principal and interest in accordance with their terms will provide money in an amount sufficient, without reinvestment, to pay the principal of (and premium, if any) or interest on such debt securities to maturity or redemption, as the case may be, and any mandatory sinking fund or analogous payments thereon. As a condition to defeasance or covenant defeasance, DPW must deliver to the trustee an opinion of counsel to the effect that the holders of such debt securities will not recognize income, gain or loss for federal income tax purposes as a result of such defeasance or covenant defeasance and will be subject to federal income tax on the same amounts and in the same manner and at the same times as would have been the case if such defeasance or covenant defeasance had not occurred. Such opinion of counsel, in the case of defeasance under clause (i) above, must refer to and be based upon a ruling of the Internal Revenue Service or a change in applicable federal income tax law occurring after the date of the relevant Indenture. In addition, in the case of either defeasance or covenant defeasance, DPW shall have delivered to the trustee (i) an officers’ certificate to the effect that the relevant debt securities exchange(s) have informed it that neither such debt securities nor any other debt securities of the same series, if then listed on any securities exchange, will be delisted as a result of such deposit and (ii) an officers’ certificate and an opinion of counsel, each stating that all conditions precedent with respect to such defeasance or covenant defeasance have been complied with. DPW may exercise its defeasance option with respect to such debt securities notwithstanding its prior exercise of its covenant defeasance option.

 

Modification and Waiver

 

Under the Indentures, DPW and the applicable trustee may supplement the Indentures for certain purposes which would not materially adversely affect the interests or rights of the holders of debt securities of a series without the consent of those holders. DPW and the applicable trustee may also modify the Indentures or any supplemental indenture in a manner that affects the interests or rights of the holders of debt securities with the consent of the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of each affected series issued under the Indenture. However, the Indentures require the consent of each holder of debt securities that would be affected by any modification which would:

 

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extend the fixed maturity of any debt securities of any series, or reduce the principal amount thereof, or reduce the rate or extend the time of payment of interest thereon, or reduce any premium payable upon the redemption thereof;

 

reduce the amount of principal of an original issue discount debt security or any other debt security payable upon acceleration of the maturity thereof;

 

change the currency in which any debt security or any premium or interest is payable;

 

impair the right to institute suit for any payment on or with respect to any debt security;

 

reduce the percentage in principal amount of outstanding debt securities of any series, the consent of whose holders is required for modification or amendment of the Indentures or for waiver of compliance with certain provisions of the Indentures or for waiver of certain defaults;

 

reduce the requirements contained in the Indentures for quorum or voting; or

 

modify any of the above provisions.

 

If subordinated debt securities are held by a trust or a trustee of a trust, a supplemental indenture that affects the interests or rights of the holders of debt securities will not be effective until the holders of not less than a majority in liquidation preference of the preferred securities and common securities of the applicable trust, collectively, have consented to the supplemental indenture; provided, further, that if the consent of the holder of each outstanding debt security is required, the supplemental indenture will not be effective until each holder of the preferred securities and the common securities of the applicable trust has consented to the supplemental indenture.

 

The Indentures permit the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the outstanding debt securities of any series issued under the Indentures which is affected by the modification or amendment to waive DPW’s compliance with certain covenants contained in the Indentures.

 

Payment and Paying Agents

 

Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, payment of interest on a debt security on any interest payment date will be made to the person in whose name a debt security is registered at the close of business on the record date for the interest.

 

Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, principal, interest and premium on the debt securities of a particular series will be payable at the office of such paying agent or paying agents as DPW may designate for such purpose from time to time.

 

Notwithstanding the foregoing, at DPW’s option, payment of any interest may be made by check mailed to the address of the person entitled thereto as such address appears in the security register.

 

Unless otherwise indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, a paying agent designated by DPW and located in the Borough of Manhattan, The City of New York will act as paying agent for payments with respect to debt securities of each series. All paying agents initially designated by DPW for debt securities of a particular series will be named in the applicable prospectus supplement. DPW may at any time designate additional paying agents or rescind the designation of any paying agent or approve a change in the office through which any paying agent acts, except that DPW will be required to maintain a paying agent in each place of payment for debt securities of a particular series.

 

All moneys paid by DPW to a paying agent for the payment of the principal, interest or premium on any debt security which remain unclaimed at the end of two years after such principal, interest or premium has become due and payable will be repaid to DPW upon request, and the holder of such debt security thereafter may look only to DPW for payment thereof.

 

Denominations, Registrations and Transfer

 

Unless an accompanying prospectus supplement states otherwise, debt securities will be represented by one or more global certificates registered in the name of a nominee for The Depository Trust Company, or DTC. In such case, each holder’s beneficial interest in the global securities will be shown on the records of DTC and transfers of beneficial interests will only be effected through DTC’s records.

 

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A holder of debt securities may only exchange a beneficial interest in a global security for certificated securities registered in the holder’s name if:

 

DTC notifies DPW that it is unwilling or unable to continue serving as the depositary for the relevant global securities;

 

DTC ceases to maintain certain qualifications under the Exchange Act and no successor depositary has been appointed for 90 days; or

 

DPW determines, in its sole discretion, that the global security shall be exchangeable.

 

If debt securities are issued in certificated form, they will only be issued in the minimum denomination specified in the accompanying prospectus supplement and integral multiples of such denomination. Transfers and exchanges of such debt securities will only be permitted in such minimum denomination. Transfers of debt securities in certificated form may be registered at the trustee’s corporate office or at the offices of any paying agent or trustee appointed by DPW under the Indentures. Exchanges of debt securities for an equal aggregate principal amount of debt securities in different denominations may also be made at such locations.

 

Governing Law

 

The Senior Indenture, the Subordinated Indenture and debt securities will be governed by, and construed in accordance with, the internal laws of the State of New York, without regard to its principles of conflicts of laws.

 

Conversion or Exchange Rights

 

The prospectus supplement will describe the terms, if any, on which a series of debt securities may be convertible into or exchangeable for DPW’s Class A Common Stock, preferred stock or other debt securities. These terms will include provisions as to whether conversion or exchange is mandatory, at the option of the holder or at DPW’s option. These provisions may allow or require the number of shares of DPW’s Class A Common Stock or other securities to be received by the holders of such series of debt securities to be adjusted.

 

DESCRIPTION OF WARRANTS

 

The following description, together with the additional information we may include in any applicable prospectus supplements, summarizes the material terms and provisions of the warrants that we may offer under this prospectus and the related warrant agreements and warrant certificates. While the terms summarized below will apply generally to any warrants that we may offer, we will describe the particular terms of any series of warrants in more detail in the applicable prospectus supplement. If we indicate in the prospectus supplement, the terms of any warrants offered under that prospectus supplement may differ from the terms described below.  If there are differences between that prospectus supplement and this prospectus, the prospectus supplement will control.  Thus, the statements we make in this section may not apply to a particular series of warrants.  Specific warrant agreements will contain additional important terms and provisions and will be incorporated by reference as an exhibit to the registration statement which includes this prospectus.

 

General

 

We may issue warrants for the purchase of common stock and/or preferred stock in one or more series. We may issue warrants independently or together with common stock and/or preferred stock, and the warrants may be attached to or separate from these securities.

 

We will evidence each series of warrants by warrant certificates that we may issue under a separate agreement. We may enter into the warrant agreement with a warrant agent. Each warrant agent may be a bank that we select which has its principal office in the United States and a combined capital and surplus of at least $50,000,000.  We may also choose to act as our own warrant agent.  We will indicate the name and address of any such warrant agent in the applicable prospectus supplement relating to a particular series of warrants.

 

We will describe in the applicable prospectus supplement the terms of the series of warrants, including:

 

the offering price and aggregate number of warrants offered;

 

the currency for which the warrants may be purchased;

 

if applicable, the designation and terms of the securities with which the warrants are issued and the number of warrants issued with each such security or each principal amount of such security;

 

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if applicable, the date on and after which the warrants and the related securities will be separately transferable;

 

in the case of warrants to purchase common stock or preferred stock, the number of shares of common stock or preferred stock, as the case may be, purchasable upon the exercise of one warrant and the price at which these shares may be purchased upon such exercise;

 

the warrant agreement under which the warrants will be issued;

 

the effect of any merger, consolidation, sale or other disposition of our business on the warrant agreement and the warrants;

 

anti-dilution provisions of the warrants, if any;

 

the terms of any rights to redeem or call the warrants;

 

any provisions for changes to or adjustments in the exercise price or number of securities issuable upon exercise of the warrants;

 

the dates on which the right to exercise the warrants will commence and expire or, if the warrants are not continuously exercisable during that period, the specific date or dates on which the warrants will be exercisable;

 

the manner in which the warrant agreement and warrants may be modified;

 

the identities of the warrant agent and any calculation or other agent for the warrants;

 

federal income tax consequences of holding or exercising the warrants;

 

the terms of the securities issuable upon exercise of the warrants;

 

any securities exchange or quotation system on which the warrants or any securities deliverable upon exercise of the warrants may be listed; and

 

any other specific terms, preferences, rights or limitations of or restrictions on the warrants.

 

Before exercising their warrants, holders of warrants will not have any of the rights of holders of the securities purchasable upon such exercise, including in the case of warrants to purchase common stock or preferred stock, the right to receive dividends, if any, or, payments upon our liquidation, dissolution or winding up or to exercise voting rights, if any.

 

Exercise of Warrants

 

Each warrant will entitle the holder to purchase the securities that we specify in the applicable prospectus supplement at the exercise price that we describe in the applicable prospectus supplement. Unless we otherwise specify in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the warrants may exercise the warrants at any time up to 5:00 p.m. Eastern Time on the expiration date that we set forth in the applicable prospectus supplement. After the close of business on the expiration date, unexercised warrants will become void.

 

Holders of the warrants may exercise the warrants by delivering the warrant certificate representing the warrants to be exercised together with specified information, and paying the required amount to the warrant agent in immediately available funds, as provided in the applicable prospectus supplement. We will set forth on the reverse side of the warrant certificate, and in the applicable prospectus supplement, the information that the holder of the warrant will be required to deliver to the warrant agent.

 

Until the warrant is properly exercised, no holder of any warrant will be entitled to any rights of a holder of the securities purchasable upon exercise of the warrant.

 

Upon receipt of the required payment and the warrant certificate properly completed and duly executed at the corporate trust office of the warrant agent or any other office indicated in the applicable prospectus supplement, we will issue and deliver the securities purchasable upon such exercise. If fewer than all of the warrants represented by the warrant certificate are exercised, then we will issue a new warrant certificate for the remaining amount of warrants. If we so indicate in the applicable prospectus supplement, holders of the warrants may surrender securities as all or part of the exercise price for warrants.

 

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Enforceability of Rights by Holders of Warrants

 

Any warrant agent will act solely as our agent under the applicable warrant agreement and will not assume any obligation or relationship of agency or trust with any holder of any warrant. A single bank or trust company may act as warrant agent for more than one issue of warrants. A warrant agent will have no duty or responsibility in case of any default by us under the applicable warrant agreement or warrant, including any duty or responsibility to initiate any proceedings at law or otherwise, or to make any demand upon us. Any holder of a warrant may, without the consent of the related warrant agent or the holder of any other warrant, enforce by appropriate legal action its right to exercise, and receive the securities purchasable upon exercise of, its warrants in accordance with their terms.

 

Warrant Agreement Will Not Be Qualified Under the Trust Indenture Act

 

No warrant agreement will be qualified as an indenture, and no warrant agent will be required to qualify as a trustee, under the Trust Indenture Act. Therefore, holders of warrants issued under a warrant agreement will not have the protection of the Trust Indenture Act with respect to their warrants.

 

Governing Law

 

Each warrant agreement and any warrants issued under the warrant agreements will be governed by New York law.

 

Calculation Agent

 

Calculations relating to warrants may be made by a calculation agent, an institution that we appoint as our agent for this purpose.  The prospectus supplement for a particular warrant will name the institution that we have appointed to act as the calculation agent for that warrant as of the original issue date for that warrant. We may appoint a different institution to serve as calculation agent from time to time after the original issue date without the consent or notification of the holders.

 

The calculation agent’s determination of any amount of money payable or securities deliverable with respect to a warrant will be final and binding in the absence of manifest error.

 

DESCRIPTION OF RIGHTS

 

This section describes the general terms of the rights that we may offer and sell by this prospectus. This prospectus and any accompanying prospectus supplement will contain the material terms and conditions for each right. The accompanying prospectus supplement may add, update or change the terms and conditions of the rights as described in this prospectus.

 

The particular terms of each issue of rights, the rights agreement relating to the rights and the rights certificates representing rights will be described in the applicable prospectus supplement, including, as applicable:

 

the title of the rights;

 

the date of determining the stockholders entitled to the rights distribution;

 

the title, aggregate number of shares of Class A common stock or preferred stock purchasable upon exercise of the rights;

 

the exercise price;

 

the aggregate number of rights issued;

 

the date, if any, on and after which the rights will be separately transferable;

 

the date on which the right to exercise the rights will commence and the date on which the right will expire; and

 

any other terms of the rights, including terms, procedures and limitations relating to the distribution, exchange and exercise of the rights.

 

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DESCRIPTION OF UNITS

 

We may issue units comprised of one or more of the other securities described in this prospectus in any combination. Each unit will be issued so that the holder of the unit is also the holder of each security included in the unit. Thus, the holder of a unit will have the rights and obligations of a holder of each included security. The unit agreement under which a unit is issued may provide that the securities included in the unit may not be held or transferred separately, at any time or at any time before a specified date.

 

The applicable prospectus supplement will describe:

 

the designation and terms of the units and of the securities comprising the units, including whether and under what circumstances those securities may be held or transferred separately;

 

any unit agreement under which the units will be issued;

 

any provisions for the issuance, payment, settlement, transfer or exchange of the units or of the securities comprising the units; and

 

whether the units will be issued in fully registered or global form.

 

The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the terms of any units. The preceding description and any description of units in the applicable prospectus supplement does not purport to be complete and is subject to and is qualified in its entirety by reference to the unit agreement and, if applicable, collateral arrangements and depositary arrangements relating to such units.

 

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

 

We may sell the securities being offered pursuant to this prospectus through underwriters or dealers, through agents, or directly to one or more purchasers or through a combination of these methods.  The applicable prospectus supplement will describe the terms of the offering of the securities, including:

 

the name or names of any underwriters, if any, and if required, any dealers or agents;

 

the purchase price of the securities and the proceeds we will receive from the sale;

 

any underwriting discounts and other items constituting underwriters’ compensation;

 

any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers; and

 

any securities exchange or market on which the securities may be listed.

 

We may distribute the securities from time to time in one or more transactions at:

 

a fixed price or prices, which may be changed;

 

market prices prevailing at the time of sale;

 

prices related to such prevailing market prices; or

 

negotiated prices.

 

Only underwriters named in the prospectus supplement are underwriters of the securities offered by the prospectus supplement.

 

If underwriters are used in an offering, we will execute an underwriting agreement with such underwriters and will specify the name of each underwriter and the terms of the transaction (including any underwriting discounts and other terms constituting compensation of the underwriters and any dealers) in a prospectus supplement. The securities may be offered to the public either through underwriting syndicates represented by managing underwriters or directly by one or more investment banking firms or others, as designated. If an underwriting syndicate is used, the managing underwriter(s) will be specified on the cover of the prospectus supplement. If underwriters are used in the sale, the offered securities will be acquired by the underwriters for their own accounts and may be resold from time to time in one or more transactions, including negotiated transactions, at a fixed public offering price or at varying prices determined at the time of sale. Any public offering price and any discounts or concessions allowed or reallowed or paid to dealers may be changed from time to time. Unless otherwise set forth in the prospectus supplement, the obligations of the underwriters to purchase the offered securities will be subject to conditions precedent and the underwriters will be obligated to purchase all of the offered securities if any are purchased.

 

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We may grant to the underwriters options to purchase additional securities to cover over-allotments, if any, at the public offering price, with additional underwriting commissions or discounts, as may be set forth in a related prospectus supplement. The terms of any over-allotment option will be set forth in the prospectus supplement for those securities.

 

If we use a dealer in the sale of the securities being offered pursuant to this prospectus or any prospectus supplement, we will sell the securities to the dealer, as principal.  The dealer may then resell the securities to the public at varying prices to be determined by the dealer at the time of resale.  The names of the dealers and the terms of the transaction will be specified in a prospectus supplement.

 

We may sell the securities directly or through agents we designate from time to time.  We will name any agent involved in the offering and sale of securities and we will describe any commissions we will pay the agent in the prospectus supplement. Unless the prospectus supplement states otherwise, any agent will act on a best-efforts basis for the period of its appointment.

 

We may authorize agents or underwriters to solicit offers by institutional investors to purchase securities from us at the public offering price set forth in the prospectus supplement pursuant to delayed delivery contracts providing for payment and delivery on a specified date in the future. We will describe the conditions to these contracts and the commissions we must pay for solicitation of these contracts in the prospectus supplement.

 

In connection with the sale of the securities, underwriters, dealers or agents may receive compensation from us or from purchasers of the securities for whom they act as agents in the form of discounts, concessions or commissions. Underwriters may sell the securities to or through dealers, and those dealers may receive compensation in the form of discounts, concessions or commissions from the underwriters or commissions from the purchasers for whom they may act as agents. Underwriters, dealers and agents that participate in the distribution of the securities, and any institutional investors or others that purchase securities directly and then resell the securities, may be deemed to be underwriters, and any discounts or commissions received by them from us and any profit on the resale of the securities by them may be deemed to be underwriting discounts and commissions under the Securities Act.

 

We may provide agents and underwriters with indemnification against particular civil liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act, or contribution with respect to payments that the agents or underwriters may make with respect to such liabilities. Agents and underwriters may engage in transactions with, or perform services for, us in the ordinary course of business.

 

In addition, we may enter into derivative transactions with third parties (including the writing of options), or sell securities not covered by this prospectus to third parties in privately negotiated transactions. If the applicable prospectus supplement indicates, in connection with such a transaction, the third parties may, pursuant to this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement, sell securities covered by this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement. If so, the third party may use securities borrowed from us or others to settle such sales and may use securities received from us to close out any related short positions. We may also loan or pledge securities covered by this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement to third parties, who may sell the loaned securities or, in an event of default in the case of a pledge, sell the pledged securities pursuant to this prospectus and the applicable prospectus supplement. The third party in such sale transactions will be an underwriter and will be identified in the applicable prospectus supplement or in a post-effective amendment.

 

To facilitate an offering of a series of securities, persons participating in the offering may engage in transactions that stabilize, maintain, or otherwise affect the market price of the securities. This may include over-allotments or short sales of the securities, which involves the sale by persons participating in the offering of more securities than have been sold to them by us. In those circumstances, such persons would cover such over-allotments or short positions by purchasing in the open market or by exercising the over-allotment option granted to those persons. In addition, those persons may stabilize or maintain the price of the securities by bidding for or purchasing securities in the open market or by imposing penalty bids, whereby selling concessions allowed to underwriters or dealers participating in any such offering may be reclaimed if securities sold by them are repurchased in connection with stabilization transactions. The effect of these transactions may be to stabilize or maintain the market price of the securities at a level above that which might otherwise prevail in the open market. Such transactions, if commenced, may be discontinued at any time. We make no representation or prediction as to the direction or magnitude of any effect that the transactions described above, if implemented, may have on the price of our securities.

 

Any common stock sold pursuant to a prospectus supplement will be eligible for quotation and trading on the NYSE American. Any underwriters to whom securities are sold by us for public offering and sale may make a market in the securities, but such underwriters will not be obligated to do so and may discontinue any market making at any time without notice.

 

In order to comply with the securities laws of some states, if applicable, the securities offered pursuant to this prospectus will be sold in those states only through registered or licensed brokers or dealers. In addition, in some states securities may not be sold unless they have been registered or qualified for sale in the applicable state or an exemption from the registration or qualification requirement is available and complied with.

 

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LEGAL MATTERS

 

The validity of the securities offered by this prospectus is being passed upon for us by Olshan Frome Wolosky LLP, New York, New York.

 

EXPERTS

 

The consolidated financial statements incorporated in this prospectus by reference from our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the years ended December 31, 2019 and 2018, and for each of the years in the period ended December 31,2019, have been so incorporated in reliance on the report of Marcum, LLP, an independent registered public accounting firm, incorporated herein by reference, given on the authority of said firm as experts in auditing and accounting.

 

The consolidated financial statements of Enertec Systems 2001 LTD., as of December 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018, and for the year ended December 31, 2019 and for the period from May 22, 2018 to December 31, 2018 incorporated by reference in this prospectus have been so incorporated in reliance on the report of BDO ZIV HAFT, an independent registered public accounting firm, incorporated herein by reference, given on the authority of said firm as experts in auditing and accounting.

 

 

WHERE YOU CAN FIND MORE INFORMATION

 

We have filed with the Commission a registration statement on Form S-3 under the Securities Act, with respect to the securities covered by this prospectus. This prospectus and any prospectus supplement which form a part of the registration statement, does not contain all of the information set forth in the registration statement or the exhibits and schedules filed therewith. For further information with respect to us and the securities covered by this prospectus, please see the registration statement and the exhibits filed with the registration statement. Any statements made in this prospectus or any prospectus supplement concerning legal documents are not necessarily complete and you should read the documents that are filed as exhibits to the registration statement or otherwise filed with the Commission for a more complete understanding of the document or matter. A copy of the registration statement and the exhibits filed with the registration statement may be inspected without charge at the Public Reference Room maintained by the Commission, located at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. Please call the Commission at 1-800-SEC-0330 for more information about the operation of the Public Reference Room. The Commission also maintains an internet website that contains reports, proxy and information statements and other information regarding registrants that file electronically with the Commission. The address of the website is http://www.sec.gov.

 

We file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the Commission. You may read, without charge, and copy the documents we file at the Commission’s public reference room in Washington, D.C. at 100 F Street, N.E., Washington, D.C. 20549. You can request copies of these documents by writing to the Commission and paying a fee for the copying cost. Please call the Commission at 1-800-SEC-0330 for further information on the public reference rooms. Our filings with the Commission are also available to the public at no cost from the SEC’s website at http://www.sec.gov.

 

INCORPORATION OF DOCUMENTS BY REFERENCE

 

We have filed a registration statement on Form S-3 with the Commission under the Securities Act. This prospectus is part of the registration statement but the registration statement includes and incorporates by reference additional information and exhibits. The Commission permits us to “incorporate by reference” the information contained in documents we file with the Commission, which means that we can disclose important information to you by referring you to those documents rather than by including them in this prospectus. Information that is incorporated by reference is considered to be part of this prospectus and you should read it with the same care that you read this prospectus. Information that we file later with the Commission will automatically update and supersede the information that is either contained, or incorporated by reference, in this prospectus, and will be considered to be a part of this prospectus from the date those documents are filed. We have filed with the Commission, and incorporate by reference in this prospectus:

 

Our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the period ended December 31, 2019, filed with the SEC on May 29, 2020, as amended by the Annual Report on Form 10-K/A filed with the SEC on June 1, 2020;

 

Quarterly Reports on Form 10-Q for the quarters ended March 31, 2020, June 30, 2020 and September 30, 2020;

 

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Current Reports on Form 8-K filed with the SEC on January 2, 2020; January 16, 2020; January 22, 2020; February 6, 2020; February 10, 2020; an amendment filed on February 25, 2020; February 25, 2020; February 25, 2020; February 28, 2020; March 26, 2020; March 27, 2020; an amendment filed on April 9, 2020; April 14, 2020; April 20, 2020; May 1, 2020; May 13, 2020; May 29, 2020; June 29, 2020; July 8, 2020; July 17, 2020; an amendment filed on July 22, 2020; July 24, 2020; August 14, 2020; August 20, 2020; September 17, 2020; September 18, 2020; an amendment filed on September 30, 2020; October 2, 2020; October 13, 2020; October 23, 2020; October 27, 2020; November 11, 2020; November 20, 2020; November 30, 2020; December 1, 2020; December 3, 2020; December 21, 2020; December 30, 2020; and January 4, 2021;

 

Our Definitive Proxy Statements filed with the SEC on each of May 18, 2020 and November 13, 2020, and

 

The description of our common stock contained in our Form 8-A filed with the SEC on January 30, 1997.

 

We also incorporate by reference all additional documents that we file with the Securities and Exchange Commission under the terms of Sections 13(a), 13(c), 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act that are made after the initial filing date of the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part until the offering of the particular securities covered by a prospectus supplement or term sheet has been completed. We are not, however, incorporating, in each case, any documents or information that we are deemed to furnish and not file in accordance with Securities and Exchange Commission rules.

 

We will provide you, without charge upon written or oral request, a copy of any and all of the information that has been incorporated by reference in this prospectus and that has not been delivered with this prospectus. Requests should be directed to DPW Holdings, Inc., 48430 Lakeview Blvd., Fremont, California, 94538-3158; Tel.: (510) 657-2635; Attention: Milton C. Ault III, Chief Executive Officer.

 

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PART II

INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED IN PROSPECTUS

 

ITEM 14. OTHER EXPENSES OF ISSUANCE AND DISTRIBUTION.

 

The expenses in connection with the issuance and distribution of the securities being registered, other than underwriting discounts and commissions, are estimated below:

 

SEC registration fee  $21,820.00 
Legal fees and expenses     
Accounting fees and expenses   * 
Miscellaneous expenses   * 
Total  $* 

 

*Estimated expenses are presently not known and cannot be estimated.

 

ITEM 15. INDEMNIFICATION OF DIRECTORS AND OFFICERS.

 

Section 145 of the Delaware General Corporation Law (the “DGCL”) empowers a Delaware corporation to indemnify any persons who are, or are threatened to be made, parties to any threatened, pending, or completed legal action, suit, or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative, or investigative (other than an action by or in the right of such corporation), by reason of the fact that such person was an officer or director of such corporation, or is or was serving at the request of such corporation as a director, officer, employee, or agent of another corporation or enterprise. The indemnity may include expenses (including attorneys’ fees), judgments, fines, and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred by such person in connection with such action, suit, or proceeding, provided that such officer or director acted in good faith and in a manner he reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the corporation’s best interests, and, for criminal proceedings, had no reasonable cause to believe his conduct was illegal. A Delaware corporation may indemnify officers and directors in an action by or in the right of the corporation under the same conditions, except that no indemnification is permitted without judicial approval if the officer or director is adjudged to be liable to the corporation in the performance of his duty. Where an officer or director is successful on the merits or otherwise in the defense of any action referred to above, the corporation must indemnify him against the expenses which such officer or director actually and reasonably incurred.

 

Our bylaws provide that we will indemnify our directors and officers to the fullest extent permitted by Delaware law, except that no indemnification will be provided to a director, officer, employee, or agent if the indemnification sought is in connection with a proceeding initiated by such person without the authorization of our board of directors. The bylaws also provide that the right of directors and officers to indemnification shall be a contract right and shall not be exclusive of any other right now possessed or hereafter acquired under any statute, provision of the certificate of incorporation, bylaw, agreement, vote of stockholders or disinterested directors or otherwise. The bylaws also permit us to secure insurance on behalf of any officer, director, employee, or other agent for any liability arising out of his or her actions in such capacity, regardless of whether the bylaws would permit indemnification of any such liability.

 

In accordance with Section 102(b)(7) of the DGCL, our certificate of incorporation provides that directors shall not be personally liable for monetary damages for breaches of their fiduciary duty as directors except for (i) breaches of their duty of loyalty to us or our stockholders, (ii) acts or omissions not in good faith or which involve intentional misconduct or knowing violations of law, (iii) certain transactions under Section 174 of the DGCL (unlawful payment of dividends or unlawful stock purchases or redemptions), or (iv) transactions from which a director derives an improper personal benefit. The effect of this provision is to eliminate the personal liability of directors for monetary damages or actions involving a breach of their fiduciary duty of care, including any actions involving gross negligence.

 

In addition, we have entered into indemnification agreements with our directors and officers that require us, among other things, to indemnify them against certain liabilities that may arise by reason of their status or service, so long as the indemnitee acted in good faith and in a manner the indemnitee reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the Registrant, and, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, the indemnitee had no reasonable cause to believe his or her conduct was unlawful. We also maintain director and officer liability insurance to insure our directors and officers against the cost of defense, settlement or payment of a judgment under specified circumstances.

 

Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to directors, officers or persons controlling the Registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, the Registrant has been informed that in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is therefore unenforceable.

 

 II-1 
 

 

ITEM 16. EXHIBITS

 

a)Exhibits.

 

Item 16. Exhibits.
4.1 Form of Senior Indenture between DPW Holdings, Inc. and the Trustee
4.2 Form of Subordinated Indenture between DPW Holdings, Inc. and the Trustee
5.1 Legal Opinion of Olshan Frome Wolosky LLP
23.1 Consent of Marcum, LLP
23.2 Consent of BDO
23.3 Consent of Olshan Frome Wolosky LLP (contained in Exhibit 5.1)
25.1 Power of Attorney (contained on signature page)

 

 

ITEM 17. UNDERTAKINGS.

 

(a)The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes:

 

(1)         To file, during any period in which offers or sales are being made, a post-effective amendment to this registration statement:

 

(i)To include any prospectus required by Section 10(a)(3) of the Securities Act;

 

(ii)To reflect in the prospectus any facts or events arising after the effective date of this registration statement (or the most recent post-effective amendment thereof) which, individually or in the aggregate, represent a fundamental change in the information set forth in this registration statement. Notwithstanding the foregoing, any increase or decrease in the volume of securities offered (if the total dollar value of the securities offered would not exceed that which was registered) and any deviation from the low or high end of the estimated maximum offering range may be reflected in the form of prospectus filed with the Commission pursuant to Rule 424(b) if, in the aggregate, the changes in volume and price represent no more than a 20% change in the maximum aggregate offering price set forth in the “Calculation of Registration Fee” table in the effective registration statement; and

 

(iii)To include any material information with respect to the plan of distribution not previously disclosed in this registration statement or any material change to such information in this registration statement;

 

provided, however, that the undertakings set forth in paragraphs (a)(1)(i), (a)(1)(ii) and (a)(1)(iii) above do not apply if the information required to be included in a post-effective amendment by those paragraphs is contained in reports filed with or furnished to the Commission by the registrant pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”) that are incorporated by reference in this registration statement or is contained in a form of prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) that is part of this registration statement;

 

(2)         That, for the purpose of determining any liability under the Securities Act, each such post-effective amendment shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

(3)         To remove from registration by means of a post-effective amendment any of the securities being registered which remain unsold at the termination of the offering.

 

(4)         That, for the purpose of determining liability under the Securities Act to any purchaser:

 

(i)If the registrant is relying on Rule 430B;

 

(A)Each prospectus filed by the registrant pursuant to Rule 424(b)(3) shall be deemed to be part of this registration statement as of the date the filed prospectus was deemed part of and included in the registration statement; and

 

 II-2 
 

 

(B)Each prospectus required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424 (b)(2), (b)(5), or (b)(7) as part of a registration statement in reliance on Rule 430B relating to an offering made pursuant to Rule 415(a)(1)(i), (vii) or (x) for the purpose of providing the information required by Section 10(a) of the Securities Act shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the earlier of the date of the Securities Act prospectus is first used after effectiveness or the date of the first contract of sale of securities in the offering described in the prospectus. As provided in Rule 430B, for liability purposes of the issuer and any person that is at that date an underwriter, such date shall be deemed to be a new effective date of the registration statement relating to the securities in the registration statement to which that prospectus relates, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such effective date, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such effective date; or

 

(ii)If the registrant is subject to Rule 430C, each prospectus filed pursuant to Rule 424(b) as part of a registration statement relating to an offering, other than registration statements relying on Rule 430B or other than prospectuses filed in reliance on Rule 430A, shall be deemed to be part of and included in the registration statement as of the date it is first used after effectiveness. Provided, however, that no statement made in a registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement or made in a document incorporated or deemed incorporated by reference into the registration statement or prospectus that is part of the registration statement will, as to a purchaser with a time of contract of sale prior to such first use, supersede or modify any statement that was made in the registration statement or prospectus that was part of the registration statement or made in any such document immediately prior to such date of first use.

 

(5)         That, for the purpose of determining liability of the registrant under the Securities Act to any purchaser in the initial distribution of the securities:

 

The undersigned registrant undertakes that in a primary offering of securities of the undersigned registrant pursuant to this registration statement, regardless of the underwriting method used to sell the securities to the purchaser, if the securities are offered or sold to such purchaser by means of any of the following communications, the undersigned registrant will be a seller to the purchaser and will be considered to offer or sell such securities to such purchaser:

 

(i)Any preliminary prospectus or prospectus of the undersigned registrant relating to the offering required to be filed pursuant to Rule 424;

 

(ii)Any free writing prospectus relating to the offering prepared by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant or used or referred to by the undersigned registrant;

 

(iii)The portion of any other free writing prospectus relating to the offering containing material information about the undersigned registrant or its securities provided by or on behalf of the undersigned registrant; and

 

(iv)Any other communication that is an offer in the offering made by the undersigned registrant to the purchaser.

 

(b)       The undersigned registrant hereby undertakes that, for purposes of determining any liability under the Securities Act, each filing of the registrant’s annual report pursuant to Section 13(a) or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act (and, where applicable, each filing of an employee benefit plan’s annual report pursuant to Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act) that is incorporated by reference in the registration statement shall be deemed to be a new registration statement relating to the securities offered therein, and the offering of such securities at that time shall be deemed to be the initial bona fide offering thereof.

 

(c)       Insofar as indemnification for liabilities arising under the Securities Act may be permitted to directors, officers and controlling persons of the registrant pursuant to the foregoing provisions, or otherwise, the registrant has been advised that in the opinion of the Securities and Exchange Commission such indemnification is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and is, therefore, unenforceable. In the event that a claim for indemnification against such liabilities (other than the payment by the registrant of expenses incurred or paid by a director, officer or controlling person of the registrant in the successful defense of any action, suit or proceeding) is asserted by such director, officer or controlling person in connection with the securities being registered, the registrant will, unless in the opinion of its counsel the matter has been settled by controlling precedent, submit to a court of appropriate jurisdiction the question whether such indemnification by it is against public policy as expressed in the Securities Act and will be governed by the final adjudication of such issue.

 

 II-3 
 

 

SIGNATURES

 

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, the registrant has duly caused this registration statement to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned, thereunto duly authorized, in Newport Beach, California, on the 25th day of November, 2020.

 

  DPW HOLDINGS, INC.
     
Date:  January 8, 2021 By: /s/ Milton C. Ault, III
    Milton C. Ault, III
    Chief Executive Officer (Principal Executive Officer)

 

 

 

Date:  January 8, 2021 By: /s/ Kenneth S. Cragun
    Kenneth S. Cragun
    Chief Financial Officer (Principal Financial Officer)

 

 

POWER OF ATTORNEY

 

KNOW ALL PERSONS BY THESE PRESENTS, each director and officer whose signature appears below constitutes and appoints each of Milton C. Ault, III, and Kenneth S. Cragun, his true and lawful attorney-in-fact and agent, with full power of substitution and re-substitution, to sign in any and all capacities any and all amendments or post-effective amendments to this registration statement on Form S-3, and to sign any and all additional registration statements relating to the same offering of securities of the Registration Statement that are filed pursuant to Rule 462(b) of the Securities Act, and to file the same with all exhibits thereto and other documents in connection therewith with the Securities and Exchange Commission, granting such attorney-in-fact and agent full power and authority to do all such other acts and execute all such other documents as he may deem necessary or desirable in connection with the foregoing, as fully as the undersigned may or could do in person, hereby ratifying and confirming all that such attorney-in-fact and agent may lawfully do or cause to be done by virtue hereof.

 

Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Act of 1933, this Registrant Statement has been signed by the following persons in the capacities and on the dates indicated.

 

Name   Title   Date
         

By: /s/ Milton Ault, III

Milton Ault, III

  Chairman and Chief Executive Officer (Principal Executive Officer)   January 8, 2021
         

By: /s/ William B. Horne

William B. Horne 

  President and Director   January 8, 2021
         

By: /s/ Henry C. W. Nisser

Henry C. W. Nisser 

   Executive Vice President, General Counsel and Director   January 8, 2021
         

By: /s/ Jeffrey A. Bentz

Jeffrey A. Bentz

  Director   January 8, 2021
         

By: /s/ Robert O. Smith

Robert O. Smith

  Director   January 8, 2021
         

By: /s/ Howard Ash

Howard Ash

  Director   January 8, 2021
         

By: /s/ Mordechai Rosenberg

Mordechai Rosenberg

  Director   January 8, 2021
         

By: /s/ Jodi Brichan

Jodi Brichan

  Director   January 8, 2021

 

 

II-4

 

 

 

 

Exhibit 4.1

 

DPW HOLDINGS, INC.,

 

Issuer

 

and

 

_______________________,

 

Trustee

  

_______________________

 

INDENTURE

 

Dated as of [                            ], 2021

 

_______________________

 

Senior Debt Securities

 

   
 

 

CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE1

 

Section of Trust Indenture Act
of 1939, as amended
  Section of Indenture
     
310(a)   7.09
310(b)   7.08
311(a)   7.13
311(b)   7.13
312(a)   5.01, 5.02(a)
312(b)   5.02(c)
312(c)   5.02(c)
313(a)   5.04(a)
313(b)   5.04(b)
313(c)   5.04(a), 5.04(b)
313(d)   5.04(c)
314(a)   5.03
314(b)   Inapplicable
314(c)   5.03(d), 7.07, 14.07
314(d)   Inapplicable
314(e)   14.07(b)
314(f)   Inapplicable
315(a)   7.01, 7.02(a)
315(b)   Inapplicable
315(c)   7.01(a)
315(d)   7.01(b)
315(e)   6.07
316(a)(1)   6.08
316(a)(2)   Inapplicable
316(b)   6.04
316(c)   8.01
317(a)(1)   6.02
317(a)(2)   6.02(c)
317(b)   4.03
318(a)   14.09
318(b)   Inapplicable
318(c)   14.09

 

                                                             

1 This Cross-Reference Table does not constitute part of the Indenture and shall not have any bearing on the interpretation of any of its terms or provisions.

 

   
 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS2

 

    Page
     
ARTICLE I  
DEFINITIONS  
     
Section 1.01 Definitions of Terms 5
  Affiliate 5
  Authenticating Agent 5
  Bankruptcy Law 5
  Board of Directors 5
  Board Resolution 5
  Business Day 5
  Capital Stock 6
  Certificate 6
  Company 6
  Commission 6
  Consolidated Net Worth 6
  Corporate Trust Office 6
  Custodian 6
  Default 6
  Deferral Period 6
  Depositary 6
  Designated Subsidiary 6
  Electronic Means 6
  Event of Default 6
  Exchange Act 6
  Global Security 7
  Governmental Obligations 7
  herein 7
  hereof 7
  hereunder 7
  Indebtedness 7
  Indenture 7
  Interest Payment Date 7
  Investment Company Act 7
  Lien 7
  Officers’ Certificate 7
  Opinion of Counsel 7
  Original Issue Discount Security 7
  Outstanding 8
  Paying Agent 8
  Person 8
  Place of Payment 8
  Predecessor Security 8
  Redemption Date 8
  Redemption Price 8
  Responsible Officer 8
  Securities 8
  Securities Act 9
  Securityholder 9
  holder of Securities 9
  registered holder 9

 

                                                             

2 This Table of Contents does not constitute part of the Indenture and shall not have any bearing upon the interpretation of any of its terms or provisions.

 

1
 

 

  Stated Maturity 9
  Subsidiary 9
  Trustee 9
  Trust Indenture Act 9
  Voting Stock 9
  Yield to Maturity 9
     
ARTICLE II  
DESCRIPTION, TERMS, EXECUTION, REGISTRATION AND EXCHANGE OF SECURITIES  
     
Section 2.01 Designation and Terms of Securities 9
Section 2.02 Form of Securities and Trustee’s Certificate 11
Section 2.03 Denominations; Provisions for Payment 12
Section 2.04 Execution and Authentications 13
Section 2.05 Registration of Transfer and Exchange 13
Section 2.06 Temporary Securities 14
Section 2.07 Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost or Stolen Securities 14
Section 2.08 Cancellation 15
Section 2.09 Benefits of Indenture 15
Section 2.10 Authenticating Agent 15
Section 2.11 Global Securities 16
Section 2.12 CUSIP Numbers 16
     
ARTICLE III  
REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES AND SINKING FUND PROVISIONS  
     
Section 3.01 Redemption 16
Section 3.02 Notice of Redemption 17
Section 3.03 Payment Upon Redemption 17
Section 3.04 Sinking Fund 18
Section 3.05 Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities 18
Section 3.06 Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund 18
     
ARTICLE IV  
CERTAIN COVENANTS  
     
Section 4.01 Payment of Principal, Premium and Interest 18
Section 4.02 Maintenance of Office or Agency 19
Section 4.03 Paying Agents 19
Section 4.04 Statement by Officers as to Default 20
Section 4.05 Existence 21
Section 4.06 Payment of Taxes 21
Section 4.07 Limitation on Liens 21
Section 4.08 Waiver of Certain Covenants 21
Section 4.09 Appointment to Fill Vacancy in Office of Trustee 22
Section 4.10 Compliance with Consolidation Provisions 22
Section 4.11 Calculation of Original Issue Discount 22
     
ARTICLE V  
SECURITYHOLDERS’ LISTS AND REPORTS BY THE COMPANY AND THE TRUSTEE  
     
Section 5.01 Company to Furnish Trustee Names and Addresses of Securityholders 22
Section 5.02 Preservation of Information; Communications with Securityholders 22
Section 5.03 Reports by the Company 22
Section 5.04 Reports by the Trustee 23

 

2
 

 

ARTICLE VI  
REMEDIES OF THE TRUSTEE AND SECURITYHOLDERS ON EVENT OF DEFAULT  
     
Section 6.01 Events of Default 23
Section 6.02 Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee 25
Section 6.03 Application of Moneys Collected 26
Section 6.04 Limitation on Suits 27
Section 6.05 Rights and Remedies Cumulative; Delay or Omission Not Waiver 27
Section 6.06 Control by Securityholders 27
Section 6.07 Undertaking to Pay Costs 28
Section 6.08 Waiver of Past Defaults 28
     
ARTICLE VII  
CONCERNING THE TRUSTEE  
     
Section 7.01 Certain Duties and Responsibilities of Trustee 28
Section 7.02 Certain Rights of Trustee 29
Section 7.03 Trustee Not Responsible for Recitals or Issuance or Securities 30
Section 7.04 May Hold Securities 31
Section 7.05 Moneys Held in Trust 31
Section 7.06 Compensation and Reimbursement 31
Section 7.07 Reliance on Officers’ Certificate 31
Section 7.08 Disqualification; Conflicting Interests 31
Section 7.09 Corporate Trustee Required; Eligibility 31
Section 7.10 Resignation and Removal; Appointment of Successor 32
Section 7.11 Acceptance of Appointment By Successor 33
Section 7.12 Merger, Conversion, Consolidation or Succession to Business 34
Section 7.13 Preferential Collection of Claims Against the Company 34
     
ARTICLE VIII  
CONCERNING THE SECURITYHOLDERS  
     
Section 8.01 Evidence of Action by Securityholders 34
Section 8.02 Proof of Execution by Securityholders 34
Section 8.03 Who May be Deemed Owners 35
Section 8.04 Certain Securities Owned by Company 35
Section 8.05 Actions Binding on Future Securityholders 35
     
ARTICLE IX  
SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES  
     
Section 9.01 Supplemental Indentures Without the Consent of Securityholders 35
Section 9.02 Supplemental Indentures With Consent of Securityholders 37
Section 9.03 Effect of Supplemental Indentures 37
Section 9.04 Securities Affected by Supplemental Indentures 37
Section 9.05 Execution of Supplemental Indentures 37
     
ARTICLE X  
CONSOLIDATION, MERGER, CONVEYANCE, TRANSFER OR LEASE  
     
Section 10.01 When the Company May Consolidate, Merge, Etc. 38

 

3
 

 

ARTICLE XI  
SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE  
     
Section 11.01 Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture 38
Section 11.02 Discharge of Obligations 39
Section 11.03 Deposited Moneys to be Held in Trust 39
Section 11.04 Payment of Moneys Held by Paying Agents 39
Section 11.05 Repayment to Company 39
     
ARTICLE XII  
IMMUNITY OF INCORPORATORS, STOCKHOLDERS, OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS  
     
Section 12.01 No Recourse 40
     
ARTICLE XIII  
DEFEASANCE AND COVENANT DEFEASANCE  
     
Section 13.01 Company’s Option to Effect Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance 40
Section 13.02 Defeasance and Discharge 40
Section 13.03 Covenant Defeasance 40
Section 13.04 Conditions to Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance 41
Section 13.05 Deposited Money and Government Obligations to be Held in Trust; Miscellaneous Provisions 42
Section 13.06 Reinstatement 42
     
ARTICLE XIV  
MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS  
     
Section 14.01 Effect on Successors and Assigns 42
Section 14.02 Actions by Successor 43
Section 14.03 Surrender of Company Powers 43
Section 14.04 Notices 43
Section 14.05 Governing Law 44
Section 14.06 Treatment of Securities as Debt 44
Section 14.07 Compliance Certificates and Opinions 44
Section 14.08 Payments on Business Days 44
Section 14.09 Conflict with Trust Indenture Act 44
Section 14.10 Counterparts 45
Section 14.11 Separability 45
Section 14.12 Assignment 45
Section 14.13 FATCA 45

 

4
 

 

INDENTURE, dated as of [                          ], 2021, between DPW Holdings, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), and ______________________________, as trustee (the “Trustee”):

 

WHEREAS, for its lawful corporate purposes, the Company has duly authorized the execution and delivery of this Indenture to provide for the issuance of unsecured debt securities, debentures, notes, bonds, or other evidences of indebtedness (hereinafter referred to as the “Securities”), in an unlimited aggregate principal amount to be issued from time to time in one or more series, as provided in this Indenture;

 

WHEREAS, to provide the terms and conditions upon which the Securities are to be authenticated, issued and delivered, the Company has duly authorized the execution of this Indenture; and

 

WHEREAS, all things necessary to make this Indenture a valid and legally binding agreement of the Company, in accordance with its terms, have been done.

 

NOW, THEREFORE, in consideration of the premises and the purchase of the Securities by the holders thereof, it is mutually covenanted and agreed as follows for the equal and ratable benefit of the holders of Securities:

 

ARTICLE I

 

DEFINITIONS

 

Section 1.01                 Definitions of Terms.

 

The terms defined in this Section (except as in this Indenture otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise requires) for all purposes of this Indenture and of any indenture supplemental hereto shall have the respective meanings specified in this Section and shall include the plural as well as the singular. All other terms used in this Indenture that are defined in the Trust Indenture Act or that are by reference in such Trust Indenture Act defined in the Securities Act (except as herein otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise requires), shall have the meanings assigned to such terms in said Trust Indenture Act and in said Securities Act as in force at the date of the execution of this instrument.

 

Affiliate” of any specified Person means any other Person, directly or indirectly, controlling or controlled by or under direct or indirect common control with such specified Person. When used with respect to any Person, “control” means the power, directly or indirectly, to direct or cause the direction of the management and policies of such Person, whether through the ownership of voting securities, by contract or otherwise; and the terms “controlling” and “controlled” and “under common control with” have meanings correlative to the foregoing.

 

Authenticating Agent” means an authenticating agent with respect to all or any of the series of Securities appointed with respect to all or any series of the Securities by the Trustee pursuant to Section 2.10.

 

Bankruptcy Law” means Title 11, U.S. Code, or any similar federal or state bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization or other law for the relief of debtors.

 

Board of Directors” means the Board of Directors of the Company or any duly authorized committee of such Board.

 

Board Resolution” means a copy of a resolution certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company to have been duly adopted by the Board of Directors and to be in full force and effect on the date of such certification.

 

Business Day” means, with respect to any series of Securities, any day other than a day on which federal or state banking institutions in the Borough of Manhattan, The City of New York, are authorized or obligated by law, executive order or regulation to close.

 

5
 

 

Capital Stock,” as applied to stock of any Person, means shares, interests, participations or other equivalents in the equity interest (however designated) in such Person.

 

Certificate” means a certificate signed by the principal executive officer, the principal financial officer or the principal accounting officer of the Company. The Certificate need not comply with the provisions of Section 14.07.

  

Commission” means the Securities and Exchange Commission, from time to time constituted, created under the Exchange Act, or, if at any time after the execution of this instrument such Commission is not existing and performing the duties now assigned to it under the Trust Indenture Act, then the body performing such duties at such time.

 

Company” means DPW Holdings, Inc., a corporation duly organized and existing under the laws of the State of Delaware, and, subject to the provisions of Article X, shall also include its successors and assigns.

 

Consolidated Net Worth” has the meaning ascribed thereto in Section 4.07.

 

Corporate Trust Office” means the office of the Trustee at which, at any particular time, its corporate trust business shall be principally administered, which office at the date hereof is located at ____________________________, or such other address as to which the Trustee may give written notice to the Company.

 

Custodian” means any receiver, trustee, assignee, liquidator, sequestrator, custodian or similar official under any Bankruptcy Law.

 

Default” means any event, act or condition that with notice or lapse of time, or both, would constitute an Event of Default.

 

Deferral Period,” with respect to any series of Securities, means any period during which the Company elects to extend the interest payment period on such series of Securities pursuant to Section 4.01(b); provided that a Deferral Period (or any extension thereof) may not extend beyond the Stated Maturity or the Redemption Date of any Security of such series and must end on an Interest Payment Date or, if the Securities are redeemed, on an Interest Payment Date or the Redemption Date for such Securities.

 

Depositary” means, with respect to Securities of any series, for which the Company shall determine that such Securities will be issued as a Global Security, The Depository Trust Company, New York, New York, another clearing agency, or any successor registered as a clearing agency under the Exchange Act, or other applicable statute or regulation, which, in each case, shall be designated by the Company pursuant to either Section 2.01 or Section 2.11.

 

Designated Subsidiary” has the meaning ascribed thereto in Section 4.07.

 

Electronic Means” shall mean the following communications methods:  S.W.I.F.T., e-mail, facsimile transmission, secure electronic transmission containing applicable authorization codes, passwords and/or authentication keys issued by the Trustee, or another method or system specified by the Trustee as available for use in connection with its services hereunder.

 

Event of Default” means, with respect to Securities of a particular series any event specified in Section 6.01 (as may be modified as contemplated by Section 2.01(a)(16)), continued for the period of time, if any, therein designated.

 

Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and any statute successor thereto, in each case as amended from time to time.

 

6
 

 

Global Security” means, with respect to any series of Securities, a Security executed by the Company and delivered by the Trustee to the Depositary or pursuant to the Depositary’s instruction, all in accordance with the Indenture, which shall be registered in the name of the Depositary or its nominee.

 

Governmental Obligations” means securities that are (i) direct obligations of the United States of America for the payment of which its full faith and credit is pledged or (ii) obligations of a Person controlled or supervised by and acting as an agency or instrumentality of the United States of America, the payment of which is unconditionally guaranteed as a full faith and credit obligation by the United States of America that, in either case, are not callable or redeemable at the option of the issuer thereof, and shall also include a depositary receipt issued by a bank (as defined in Section 3(a)(2) of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended) as custodian with respect to any such Governmental Obligation or a specific payment of principal of or interest on any such Governmental Obligation held by such custodian for the account of the holder of such depositary receipt; provided, however, that (except as required by law) such custodian is not authorized to make any deduction from the amount payable to the holder of such depositary receipt from any amount received by the custodian in respect of the Governmental Obligation or the specific payment of principal of or interest on the Governmental Obligation evidenced by such depositary receipt.

 

herein,” “hereof” and “hereunder,” and other words of similar import, refer to this Indenture as a whole and not to any particular Article, Section or other subdivision.

 

Indebtedness” has the meaning ascribed thereto in Section 4.07.

 

Indenture” means this instrument as originally executed and as it may from time to time be supplemented or amended by one or more indentures supplemental hereto entered into pursuant to the applicable provisions hereof, including, for all purposes of this instrument and any such supplemental indenture, the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act that are deemed to be a part of and govern this instrument and any such supplemental indenture, respectively. The term “Indenture” shall also include the terms of particular series of Securities established as contemplated by Section 2.01.

 

Interest Payment Date,” when used with respect to any Security, means the Stated Maturity of an installment of interest on a Security of a particular series.

 

Investment Company Act” means the Investment Company Act of 1940 and any statute successor thereto, in each case as amended from time to time.

 

Lien” shall have the meaning ascribed thereto in Section 4.07.

 

Officers’ Certificate” means a certificate signed by the Chief Executive Officer or President and by the Treasurer or an Assistant Treasurer or the Controller or an Assistant Controller or the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company that is delivered to the Trustee in accordance with the terms hereof. Each such certificate shall include the statements provided for in Section 14.07, if and to the extent required by the provisions thereof.

 

Opinion of Counsel” means an opinion in writing of legal counsel, who may be an employee of or counsel for the Company that is delivered to the Trustee in accordance with the terms hereof. Each such opinion shall include the statements provided for in Section 14.07, if and to the extent required by the provisions thereof.

 

Original Issue Discount Security” means any Security which provides for an amount less than the principal amount thereof to be due and payable upon a declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.01(b).

 

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Outstanding,” when used with reference to Securities of any series, means, subject to the provisions of Section 8.04, as of any particular time, all Securities of that series theretofore authenticated and delivered by the Trustee under this Indenture, except (a) Securities theretofore canceled by the Trustee or any Paying Agent, or delivered to the Trustee or any Paying Agent for cancellation or that have previously been canceled; (b) Securities or portions thereof for the payment or redemption of which moneys or Governmental Obligations in the necessary amount shall have been deposited in trust with the Trustee or with any Paying Agent (other than the Company) or shall have been set aside and segregated in trust by the Company (if the Company shall act as its own Paying Agent); provided, however, that if such Securities or portions of such Securities are to be redeemed prior to the maturity thereof, notice of such redemption shall have been given as in Article III provided, or provision satisfactory to the Trustee shall have been made for giving such notice; (c) Securities in lieu of or in substitution for which other Securities shall have been authenticated and delivered pursuant to the terms of Section 2.07; and (d) Securities as to which Defeasance (as defined in Section 13.02) has been effected pursuant to Section 13.02, provided, however, that in determining whether the holders of the requisite principal amount of the Outstanding Securities have given, made or taken any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action hereunder as of any date, (A) the principal amount of an Original Issue Discount Security which shall be deemed to be Outstanding shall be the amount of the principal thereof which would be due and payable as of such date upon acceleration of the maturity thereof to such date pursuant to Section 6.01(b), (B) if, as of such date, the principal amount payable at the Stated Maturity of a Security is not determinable, the principal amount of such Security which shall be deemed to be Outstanding shall be the amount as specified or determined as contemplated by Section 2.01, (C) the principal amount of a Security denominated in one or more foreign currencies or currency units which shall be deemed to be Outstanding shall be the U.S. dollar equivalent, determined as of such date in the manner provided as contemplated by Section 2.01, of the principal amount of such Security (or, in the case of a Security described in Clause (A) or (B) above, of the amount determined as provided in such Clause), and (D) Securities beneficially owned by the Company or any other obligor upon such Securities or any Affiliate of the Company or of such other obligor shall be disregarded and deemed not to be Outstanding, except that, in determining whether the Trustee shall be protected in relying upon any such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action, only Securities which a Responsible Officer of the Trustee knows to be so owned shall be so disregarded. Securities so owned which have been pledged in good faith may be regarded as Outstanding if the pledgee establishes to the satisfaction of the Trustee the pledgee’s right so to act with respect to such Securities and that the pledgee is not the Company or any other obligor upon the Securities or any Affiliate of the Company or of such other obligor.

 

Paying Agent” means any Person authorized by the Company to pay the principal of or any premium or interest on any Securities on behalf of the Company.

 

Person” means any individual, corporation, partnership, limited liability company, business trust, joint-venture, joint-stock company, unincorporated organization or government or any agency or political subdivision thereof.

 

Place of Payment,” when used with respect to the Securities of any series, means the place or places where the principal of and any premium and interest on the Securities of that series are payable as specified as contemplated by Section 2.01.

 

Predecessor Security” of any particular Security means every previous Security evidencing all or a portion of the same debt as that evidenced by such particular Security; and, for the purposes of this definition, any Security authenticated and delivered under Section 2.07 in lieu of a lost, destroyed or stolen Security shall be deemed to evidence the same debt as the lost, destroyed or stolen Security.

 

Redemption Date,” when used with respect to any Security to be redeemed, means the date fixed for such redemption by or pursuant to this Indenture.

 

Redemption Price,” when used with respect to any Security to be redeemed, means the price at which it is to be redeemed pursuant to this Indenture.

 

Responsible Officer,” when used with respect to the Trustee, means any officer within the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, including any vice president, assistant vice president, assistant secretary, assistant treasurer, trust officer or any other officer of the Trustee who customarily performs functions similar to those performed by the Persons who at the time shall be such officers, respectively, or to whom any corporate trust matter is referred because of such Person’s knowledge of and familiarity with the particular subject and who shall have direct responsibility for the administration of this Indenture.

 

Securities” has the meaning stated in the preamble of this Indenture and more particularly means any Securities authenticated and delivered under this Indenture.

 

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Securities Act” means the Securities Act of 1933 and any statute successor thereto, in each case as amended from time to time.

 

Securityholder,” “holder of Securities,” “registered holder,” or other similar term, means the Person or Persons in whose name or names a particular Security shall be registered on the books of the Company kept for that purpose in accordance with the terms of this Indenture.

 

Stated Maturity,” when used with respect to any Security or any installment of principal thereof or interest thereon, means the date specified in such Security as the fixed date on which the principal of such Security or such installment of principal or interest is due and payable.

 

Subsidiary” means, with respect to any Person, (i) any corporation at least a majority of whose outstanding Voting Stock shall at the time be owned, directly or indirectly, by such Person or by one or more of its Subsidiaries or by such Person and one or more of its Subsidiaries, (ii) any general partnership, limited liability company, joint venture or similar entity, at least a majority of whose outstanding partnership, membership or similar interests shall at the time be owned by such Person, or by one or more of its Subsidiaries, or by such Person and one or more of its Subsidiaries and (iii) any limited partnership or limited liability company of which such Person or any of its Subsidiaries is a general partner or principal managing member.

 

Trust Indenture Act” means the Trust Indenture Act of 1939, as amended, subject to the provisions of Sections 9.01, 9.02, and 10.01, as in effect at the date of execution of this instrument.

 

Trustee” means _________________ and, subject to the provisions of Article VII, shall also include its successors and assigns and, if at any time there is more than one Person acting in such capacity hereunder, “Trustee” shall mean each such Person. The term “Trustee” as used with respect to a particular series of the Securities shall mean the trustee with respect to that series.

 

Voting Stock,” as applied to stock of any Person, means shares, interests, participations or other equivalents in the equity interest (however designated) in such Person having ordinary voting power for the election of a majority of the directors (or the equivalent) of such Person, other than shares, interests, participations or other equivalents having such power only by reason of the occurrence of a contingency.

 

Yield to Maturity” means the yield to maturity on a series of securities calculated at the time of issuance of such series or, if applicable, of the most recent redetermination of interest on such series, and calculated in accordance with accepted financial practice.

 

ARTICLE II

 

DESCRIPTION, TERMS, EXECUTION,
REGISTRATION AND EXCHANGE OF SECURITIES

 

Section 2.01                 Designation and Terms of Securities.

 

(a)                 The aggregate principal amount of Securities that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture is unlimited. The Securities may be issued in one or more series up to the aggregate principal amount of Securities of that series from time to time authorized by or pursuant to a Board Resolution of the Company or pursuant to one or more indentures supplemental hereto. Prior to the initial issuance of Securities of any series, there shall be established in or pursuant to a Board Resolution of the Company, and set forth in an Officers’ Certificate of the Company or established in one or more indentures supplemental hereto:

 

(1)                 the title of the Security of the series, including CUSIP number(s) (which shall distinguish the Securities of the series from all other Securities); 

 

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(2)                 any limit upon the aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that series that may be authenticated and delivered under this Indenture (except for Securities authenticated and delivered upon registration of transfer of, or in exchange for, or in lieu of, other Securities of that series);

 

(3)                 the price or prices at which the Company will sell the Securities;

 

(4)                 the Stated Maturity of the Securities;

 

(5)                 the rate or rates at which the Securities of the series shall bear interest or the manner of calculation of such rate or rates, if any;

 

(6)                 the date or dates from which such interest shall accrue, the Interest Payment Dates on which such interest will be payable or the manner of determination of such Interest Payment Dates and the record date for the determination of holders to whom interest is payable on any such Interest Payment Dates;

 

(7)                 the right, if any, to extend the interest payment periods and the duration of any such Deferral Period, including the maximum consecutive period during which interest payment periods may be extended;

 

(8)                 if the amount of principal of or any premium or interest on any Securities of the series may be determined with reference to any index, formula, or other method, such as one or more currencies, commodities, equity indices or other indices, and the manner in which such amounts shall be determined;

 

(9)                 the place or places where the principal of and any premium and interest on any Securities of the series shall be payable;

 

(10)               the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which and the terms and conditions upon which, Securities of the series may be redeemed, in whole or in part, at the option of the Company;

 

(11)               the obligation, if any, of the Company to redeem, repay or purchase Securities of the series pursuant to any sinking fund or analogous provisions (including payments made in cash in participation of future sinking fund obligations) or at the option of a holder thereof and the period or periods within which, the price or prices at which, and the terms and conditions upon which, Securities of the series shall be redeemed, repaid or purchased, in whole or in part, pursuant to such obligation;

 

(12)               if other than denominations of one thousand U.S. dollars ($1,000) or any integral multiple thereof, the denominations in which the Securities of the series shall be issuable;

 

(13)               if other than the full principal amount thereof, the portion or, methods of determining the portion, of the principal amount of Securities of the series which shall be payable upon declaration of acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.01;

 

(14)               if other than the currency of the United States of America, the currency, currencies or currency units or composite currencies in which the principal of or any premium or interest on any Securities of the series shall be payable and the manner of determining the equivalent thereof in the currency of the United States of America for any purpose, including for purposes of the definition of “Outstanding” in Section 1.01;

 

(15)               provisions granting special rights to holders of the Securities upon the occurrence of specific events;

  

(16)               any deletions from, modifications of or additions to the Events of Default or the Company’s covenants provided for with respect to the Securities of the series;

 

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(17)               if applicable, that the Securities of the series, in whole or any specified part, shall be defeasible pursuant to Section 13.02 or Section 13.03 or both such Sections and, if other than by a Board Resolution, the manner in which any election by the Company to defease such Securities shall be evidenced;

 

(18)               whether the Securities will be convertible into or exchangeable for shares of common stock, preferred stock or other securities or property of the Company and, if so, the terms and conditions upon which such Securities will be so convertible or exchangeable, including the conversion or exchange price and the conversion or exchange period;

 

(19)               whether the Securities are issuable as a Global Security and, in such case, the identity for the Depositary for such series and the terms and conditions upon which Global Securities may be exchanged for certificated debt securities;

 

(20)               any special tax implications of the Securities of the series, including any provisions for Original Issue Discount Securities, if offered;

 

(21)               any change in the right of the Trustee or the requisite holders of such Securities to declare the principal amount thereof due and payable pursuant to Section 6.01;

 

(22)               any trustees, authenticating or Paying Agents, transfer agents or registrars or other agents with respect to the Securities; and

 

(23)               any other terms of the series (which terms shall not be inconsistent with the provisions of this Indenture, except as permitted by Section 9.01(10), but which may modify or delete any provision of this Indenture with respect to such series, provided that no such term may modify or delete any provision hereof if imposed by the Trust Indenture Act, and provided, further that any modification or deletion of the rights, duties or immunities of the Trustee hereunder shall have been consented to in writing by the Trustee).

 

All Securities of any one series shall be substantially identical except as to denomination and except as may otherwise be provided in or pursuant to any such Board Resolution or in any indentures supplemental hereto.

 

If any of the terms of the series are established by action taken pursuant to a Board Resolution of the Company, a copy of an appropriate record of such action shall be certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company and delivered to the Trustee at or prior to the delivery of the Officers’ Certificate of the Company setting forth the terms of the series.

 

Securities of any particular series may be issued at various times, with different dates on which the principal or any installment of principal is payable, with different rates of interest, if any, or different methods by which rates of interest may be determined, with different dates on which such interest may be payable and with different redemption dates.

 

Section 2.02                 Form of Securities and Trustee’s Certificate.

 

The Securities of any series and the Trustee’s certificate of authentication to be borne by such Securities shall be substantially of the tenor and purport as set forth in one or more indentures supplemental hereto or as provided in a Board Resolution of the Company and as set forth in an Officers’ Certificate of the Company and may have such letters, numbers or other marks of identification or designation and such legends or endorsements printed, lithographed or engraved thereon as the Company may deem appropriate and as are not inconsistent with the provisions of this Indenture, or as may be required to comply with any law or with any rule or regulation made pursuant thereto or with any rule or regulation of any stock exchange on which Securities of that series may be listed, or to conform to usage.

 

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Section 2.03                 Denominations; Provisions for Payment.

 

The Securities shall be issuable as registered Securities and in the denominations of one thousand U.S. dollars ($1,000) or any integral multiple thereof, subject to Section 2.01(11). The Securities of a particular series shall bear interest payable on the dates and at the rate specified with respect to that series. Unless otherwise provided pursuant to Section 2.01, the principal of and the interest on the Securities of any series, as well as any premium thereon in case of redemption thereof prior to maturity, shall be payable in the coin or currency of the United States of America that at the time is legal tender for public and private debt, at the office or agency of the Company maintained for that purpose in the Borough of Manhattan, the City and State of New York. Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication. Interest on the Securities shall be computed on the basis of a 360-day year composed of twelve 30-day months.

 

The interest installment on any Security that is payable, and is punctually paid or duly provided for, on any Interest Payment Date for Securities of that series shall be paid to the Person in whose name said Security (or one or more Predecessor Securities) is registered at the close of business on the regular record date for such interest installment. In the event that any Security of a particular series or portion thereof is called for redemption and the redemption date is subsequent to a regular record date with respect to any Interest Payment Date and prior to such Interest Payment Date, interest on such Security will be paid upon presentation and surrender of such Security as provided in Section 3.03.

 

Except as otherwise specified with respect to a series of Securities in accordance with the provisions of Section 2.01, any interest on any Security that is payable, but is not punctually paid or duly provided for, on any Interest Payment Date for Securities of the same series (herein called “Defaulted Interest”) shall forthwith cease to be payable to the registered holder on the relevant regular record date by virtue of having been such holder; and such Defaulted Interest shall be paid by the Company, at its election, as provided in clause (1) or clause (2) below:

 

(1)                 The Company may make payment of any Defaulted Interest on Securities to the Persons in whose names such Securities (or their respective Predecessor Securities) are registered at the close of business on a special record date for the payment of such Defaulted Interest, which shall be fixed in the following manner: the Company shall notify the Trustee in writing of the amount of Defaulted Interest proposed to be paid on each such Security and the date of the proposed payment, and at the same time the Company shall deposit with the Trustee an amount of money equal to the aggregate amount proposed to be paid in respect of such Defaulted Interest or shall make arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee for such deposit prior to the date of the proposed payment, such money when deposited to be held in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled to such Defaulted Interest as in this clause provided. Thereupon the Trustee shall fix a special record date for the payment of such Defaulted Interest which shall not be more than 15 nor less than 10 days prior to the date of the proposed payment and not less than 10 days after the receipt by the Trustee of the notice of the proposed payment. The Trustee shall promptly notify the Company of such special record date and, in the name and at the expense of the Company, shall cause notice of the proposed payment of such Defaulted Interest and the special record date therefor to be mailed, first class postage prepaid, or otherwise delivered in accordance with the applicable procedures of the Depositary, to each Securityholder at his or her address as it appears in the Security Register (as hereinafter defined), not less than 10 days prior to such special record date. Notice of the proposed payment of such Defaulted Interest and the special record date therefor having been mailed or delivered as aforesaid, such Defaulted Interest shall be paid to the Persons in whose names such Securities (or their respective Predecessor Securities) are registered on such special record date and shall be no longer payable pursuant to the following clause (2).

 

(2)                 The Company may make payment of any Defaulted Interest on any Securities in any other lawful manner not inconsistent with the requirements of any securities exchange on which such Securities may be listed, and upon such notice as may be required by such exchange, if, after notice given by the Company to the Trustee of the proposed payment pursuant to this clause, such manner of payment shall be deemed practicable by the Trustee.

 

Unless otherwise set forth in a Board Resolution of the Company or one or more indentures supplemental hereto establishing the terms of any series of Securities pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof, the term “regular record date” as used in this Section with respect to a series of Securities with respect to any Interest Payment Date for such series shall mean either the fifteenth day of the month immediately preceding the month in which an Interest Payment Date established for such series pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof shall occur, if such Interest Payment Date is the first day of a month, or the last day of the month immediately preceding the month in which an Interest Payment Date established for such series pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof shall occur, if such Interest Payment Date is the fifteenth day of a month, whether or not such date is a Business Day.

 

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Subject to the foregoing provisions of this Section, each Security of a series delivered under this Indenture upon transfer of or in exchange for or in lieu of any other Security of such series shall carry the rights to interest accrued and unpaid, and to accrue, that were carried by such other Security.

 

Section 2.04                 Execution and Authentications.

 

The Securities shall be signed on behalf of the Company by its Chief Executive Officer, President, or its Executive Vice Presidents, or its Treasurer, or one of its Assistant Treasurers, or its Secretary, or one of its Assistant Secretaries, under its corporate seal attested by its Secretary or one of its Assistant Secretaries. Signatures may be in the form of a manual or facsimile signature. The Company may use the facsimile signature of any Person who shall have been a Chief Executive Officer, President or Executive Vice President thereof, or of any Person who shall have been a Secretary or Assistant Secretary thereof, notwithstanding the fact that at the time the Securities shall be authenticated and delivered or disposed of such Person shall have ceased to be the Chief Executive Officer, President or Executive Vice President, or the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary, of the Company. The seal of the Company may be in the form of a facsimile of such seal and may be impressed, affixed, imprinted or otherwise reproduced on the Securities. The Securities may contain such notations, legends or endorsements required by law, stock exchange rule or usage. Each Security shall be dated the date of its authentication by the Trustee.

 

A Security shall not be valid until authenticated manually by an authorized signatory of the Trustee, or by an Authenticating Agent. Such signature shall be conclusive evidence that the Security so authenticated has been duly authenticated and delivered hereunder and that the holder is entitled to the benefits of this Indenture.

 

At any time and from time to time after the execution and delivery of this Indenture, the Company may deliver Securities of any series executed by the Company to the Trustee for authentication, together with a written order of the Company for the authentication and delivery of such Securities, signed by its Chief Executive Officer, President or Executive Vice President and its Secretary or any Assistant Secretary, and the Trustee in accordance with such written order shall authenticate and deliver such Securities.

 

In authenticating such Securities and accepting the additional responsibilities under this Indenture in relation to such Securities, the Trustee shall be entitled to receive, and (subject to Section 7.01) shall be fully protected in relying upon, an Opinion of Counsel stating that the form and terms thereof have been established in conformity with the provisions of this Indenture.

 

The Trustee shall not be required to authenticate such Securities if the issue of such Securities pursuant to this Indenture will affect the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under the Securities and this Indenture or otherwise in a manner that is not reasonably acceptable to the Trustee.

 

Section 2.05                 Registration of Transfer and Exchange.

 

(a)                 Securities of any series may be exchanged upon presentation thereof at the office or agency of the Company designated for such purpose in the Borough of Manhattan, the City and State of New York, for other Securities of such series of authorized denominations, and for a like aggregate principal amount, upon payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge in relation thereto, all as provided in this Section. In respect of any Securities so surrendered for exchange, the Company shall execute, the Trustee shall authenticate and such office or agency shall deliver in exchange therefor the Security or Securities of the same series that the Securityholder making the exchange shall be entitled to receive, bearing numbers not contemporaneously outstanding.

 

(b)                 The Company shall keep, or cause to be kept, at its office or agency designated for such purpose in the Borough of Manhattan, the City and State of New York, or such other location designated by the Company a register or registers (herein referred to as the “Security Register”) in which, subject to such reasonable regulations as it may prescribe, the Company shall register the Securities and the transfers of Securities as in this Article provided and which at all reasonable times shall be open for inspection by the Trustee. The registrar for the purpose of registering Securities and transfer of Securities as herein provided shall be appointed as authorized by Board Resolution (the “Security Registrar”).

 

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Upon surrender for transfer of any Security at the office or agency of the Company designated for such purpose, the Company shall execute, the Trustee shall authenticate and such office or agency shall deliver in the name of the transferee or transferees a new Security or Securities of the same series as the Security presented for a like aggregate principal amount.

 

All Securities presented or surrendered for exchange or registration of transfer, as provided in this Section, shall be accompanied (if so required by the Company or the Security Registrar) by a written instrument or instruments of transfer, in form satisfactory to the Company or the Security Registrar, duly executed by the registered holder or by such holder’s duly authorized attorney in writing.

 

(c)                 No service charge shall be made for any exchange or registration of transfer of Securities, or issue of new Securities in case of partial redemption of any series, but the Company may require payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge in relation thereto, other than exchanges pursuant to Section 2.06, the second paragraph of Section 3.03 and Section 9.04 not involving any transfer.

 

(d)                 The Company shall not be required (i) to issue, exchange or register the transfer of any Securities during a period beginning at the opening of business 15 days before the day of the mailing of a notice of redemption of less than all the Outstanding Securities of the same series and ending at the close of business on the day of such mailing, nor (ii) to register the transfer of or exchange any Securities of any series or portions thereof called for redemption. The provisions of this Section 2.05 are, with respect to any Global Security, subject to Section 2.11 hereof.

 

Section 2.06                 Temporary Securities.

 

Pending the preparation of definitive Securities of any series, the Company may execute, and the Trustee shall authenticate and deliver, temporary Securities (printed, lithographed or typewritten) of any authorized denomination. Such temporary Securities shall be substantially in the form of the definitive Securities in lieu of which they are issued, but with such omissions, insertions and variations as may be appropriate for temporary Securities, all as may be determined by the Company. Every temporary Security of any series shall be executed by the Company and be authenticated by the Trustee upon the same conditions and in substantially the same manner, and with like effect, as the definitive Securities of such series. Without unnecessary delay the Company will execute and will furnish definitive Securities of such series and thereupon any or all temporary Securities of such series may be surrendered in exchange therefor (without charge to the holders), at the office or agency of the Company designated for the purpose in the Borough of Manhattan, the City and State of New York, and the Trustee shall authenticate and such office or agency shall deliver in exchange for such temporary Securities an equal aggregate principal amount of definitive Securities of such series, unless the Company advises the Trustee to the effect that definitive Securities need not be executed and furnished until further notice from the Company. Until so exchanged, the temporary Securities of such series shall be entitled to the same benefits under this Indenture as definitive Securities of such series authenticated and delivered hereunder.

 

Section 2.07                 Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost or Stolen Securities.

 

In case any temporary or definitive Security shall become mutilated or be destroyed, lost or stolen, the Company (subject to the next succeeding sentence) shall execute, and upon the Company’s request the Trustee (subject as aforesaid) shall authenticate and deliver, a new Security of the same series, bearing a number not contemporaneously outstanding, in exchange and substitution for the mutilated Security, or in lieu of and in substitution for the Security so destroyed, lost or stolen. In every case the applicant for a substituted Security shall furnish to the Company and the Trustee such security or indemnity as may be required by them to save each of them harmless, and, in every case of destruction, loss or theft, the applicant shall also furnish to the Company and the Trustee evidence to their satisfaction of the destruction, loss or theft of the applicant’s Security and of the ownership thereof. The Trustee may authenticate any such substituted Security and deliver the same upon the written request or authorization of any officer of the Company. Upon the issuance of any substituted Security, the Company may require the payment of a sum sufficient to cover any tax or other governmental charge that may be imposed in relation thereto and any other expenses (including the fees and expenses of the Trustee) connected therewith. In case any Security that has matured or is about to mature shall become mutilated or be destroyed, lost or stolen, the Company may, instead of issuing a substitute Security, pay or authorize the payment of the same (without surrender thereof except in the case of a mutilated Security) if the applicant for such payment shall furnish to the Company and the Trustee such security or indemnity as they may require to save them harmless, and, in case of destruction, loss or theft, evidence to the satisfaction of the Company and the Trustee of the destruction, loss or theft of such Security and of the ownership thereof.

 

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Every replacement Security issued pursuant to the provisions of this Section shall constitute an additional contractual obligation of the Company whether or not the mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Security shall be found at any time, or be enforceable by anyone, and shall be entitled to all the benefits of this Indenture equally and proportionately with any and all other Securities of the same series duly issued hereunder. All Securities shall be held and owned upon the express condition that the foregoing provisions are exclusive with respect to the replacement or payment of mutilated, destroyed, lost or stolen Securities, and shall preclude (to the extent lawful) any and all other rights or remedies, notwithstanding any law or statute existing or hereafter enacted to the contrary with respect to the replacement or payment of negotiable instruments or other securities without their surrender.

 

Section 2.08                 Cancellation.

 

All Securities surrendered for the purpose of payment, redemption, exchange or registration of transfer shall, if surrendered to the Company or any Paying Agent, be delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, or, if surrendered to the Trustee, shall be canceled by it, and no Securities shall be issued in lieu thereof except as expressly required or permitted by any of the provisions of this Indenture. On request of the Company at the time of such surrender, the Trustee shall deliver to the Company canceled Securities held by the Trustee. In the absence of such request the Trustee may dispose of canceled Securities in accordance with its standard procedures and deliver a certificate of disposition to the Company. If the Company shall otherwise acquire any of the Securities, however, such acquisition shall not operate as a redemption or satisfaction of the indebtedness represented by such Securities unless and until the same are delivered to the Trustee for cancellation.

 

Section 2.09                 Benefits of Indenture.

 

Nothing in this Indenture or in the Securities, express or implied, shall give or be construed to give to any Person, other than the parties hereto and the holders of the Securities any legal or equitable right, remedy or claim under or in respect of this Indenture, or under any covenant, condition or provision herein contained; all such covenants, conditions and provisions being for the sole benefit of the parties hereto and of the holders of the Securities.

 

Section 2.10                Authenticating Agent.

 

So long as any of the Securities of any series remain Outstanding there may be an Authenticating Agent for any or all such series of Securities which the Trustee shall have the right to appoint. Said Authenticating Agent shall be authorized to act on behalf of the Trustee to authenticate Securities of such series issued upon exchange, transfer or partial redemption thereof, and Securities so authenticated shall be entitled to the benefits of this Indenture and shall be valid and obligatory for all purposes as if authenticated by the Trustee hereunder. All references in this Indenture to the authentication of Securities by the Trustee shall be deemed to include authentication by an Authenticating Agent for such series. Each Authenticating Agent shall be acceptable to the Company and shall be a corporation that has a combined capital and surplus, as most recently reported or determined by it, sufficient under the laws of any jurisdiction under which it is organized or in which it is doing business to conduct a trust business, and that is otherwise authorized under such laws to conduct such business and is subject to supervision or examination by federal or state authorities. If at any time any Authenticating Agent shall cease to be eligible in accordance with these provisions, it shall resign immediately.

 

Any Authenticating Agent may at any time resign by giving written notice of resignation to the Trustee and to the Company. The Trustee may at any time (and upon request by the Company shall) terminate the agency of any Authenticating Agent by giving written notice of termination to such Authenticating Agent and to the Company. Upon resignation, termination or cessation of eligibility of any Authenticating Agent, the Trustee may appoint an eligible successor Authenticating Agent acceptable to the Company. Any successor Authenticating Agent, upon acceptance of its appointment hereunder, shall become vested with all the rights, powers and duties of its predecessor hereunder as if originally named as an Authenticating Agent pursuant hereto.

 

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Section 2.11                Global Securities.

 

(a)                 If the Company shall establish pursuant to Section 2.01 that the Securities of a particular series are to be issued as a Global Security, then the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall, in accordance with Section 2.04, authenticate and deliver, a Global Security that (i) shall represent, and shall be denominated in an amount equal to the aggregate principal amount of, all of the Outstanding Securities of such series, (ii) shall be registered in the name of the Depositary or its nominee, (iii) shall be delivered by the Trustee to the Depositary or pursuant to the Depositary’s instruction and (iv) shall bear a legend substantially to the following effect: “Except as otherwise provided in Section 2.11 of the Indenture, this Security may be transferred, in whole but not in part, only to another nominee of the Depositary or to a successor Depositary or to a nominee of such successor Depositary.”

 

(b)                 Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 2.05, the Global Security of a series may be transferred, in whole but not in part and in the manner provided in Section 2.05, only to another nominee of the Depositary for such series, or to a successor Depositary for such series selected or approved by the Company or to a nominee of such successor Depositary.

 

(c)                 If at any time the Depositary for a series of the Securities notifies the Company that it is unwilling or unable to continue as Depositary for such series or if at any time the Depositary for such series shall no longer be registered or in good standing under the Exchange Act, or other applicable statute or regulation, and a successor Depositary for such series is not appointed by the Company within 90 days after the Company receives such notice or becomes aware of such condition, as the case may be, this Section 2.11 shall no longer be applicable to the Securities of such series and the Company will execute, and subject to Section 2.05, the Trustee will authenticate and deliver the Securities of such series in definitive registered form without coupons, in authorized denominations, and in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security of such series in exchange for such Global Security. In addition, the Company may at any time determine that the Securities of any series shall no longer be represented by a Global Security and that the provisions of this Section 2.11 shall no longer apply to the Securities of such series. In such event the Company will execute and subject to Section 2.05, the Trustee, upon receipt of an Officers’ Certificate evidencing such determination by the Company, will authenticate and deliver the Securities of such series in definitive registered form without coupons, in authorized denominations, and in an aggregate principal amount equal to the principal amount of the Global Security of such series in exchange for such Global Security. Upon the exchange of the Global Security for such Securities in definitive registered form without coupons, in authorized denominations, the Global Security shall be canceled by the Trustee. Such Securities in definitive registered form issued in exchange for the Global Security pursuant to this Section 2.11(c) shall be registered in such names and in such authorized denominations as the Depositary, pursuant to instructions from its direct or indirect participants or otherwise, shall instruct the Trustee. The Trustee shall deliver such Securities to the Depositary for delivery to the Persons in whose names such Securities are so registered.

 

Section 2.12                CUSIP Numbers.

 

The Company in issuing the Securities may use “CUSIP” numbers (if then generally in use), and, if so, the Trustee shall use “CUSIP” numbers in notices of redemption as a convenience to Securityholders; provided that any such notice may state that no representation is made as to the correctness of such numbers either as printed on the Securities or as contained in any notice of a redemption and that reliance may be placed only on the other identification numbers printed on the Securities, and any such redemption shall not be affected by any defect in or omission of such numbers. The Company will promptly notify the Trustee of any change in the “CUSIP” numbers.

 

ARTICLE III

 

REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES AND SINKING FUND PROVISIONS

 

Section 3.01                Redemption.

 

The Company may redeem the Securities of any series issued hereunder on and after the dates and in accordance with the terms established for such series pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof.

 

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Section 3.02                Notice of Redemption.

 

(a)                 In case the Company shall desire to exercise such right to redeem all or, as the case may be, a portion of the Securities of any series in accordance with the right reserved so to do, the Company shall, or shall cause the Trustee to, give notice of such redemption to holders of the Securities of such series to be redeemed by mailing, first class postage prepaid, or otherwise delivered in accordance with the applicable procedures of the Depositary, a notice of such redemption not less than 30 days and not more than 90 days before the date fixed for redemption of that series to such holders at their last addresses as they shall appear upon the Security Register unless a shorter period is specified in the Securities to be redeemed. Any notice that is mailed in the manner herein provided shall be conclusively presumed to have been duly given, whether or not the registered holder receives the notice. In any case, failure duly to give such notice to the holder of any Security of any series designated for redemption in whole or in part, or any defect in the notice, shall not affect the validity of the proceedings for the redemption of any other Securities of such series or any other series. In the case of any redemption of Securities prior to the expiration of any restriction on such redemption provided in the terms of such Securities or elsewhere in this Indenture, the Company shall furnish the Trustee with an Officers’ Certificate evidencing compliance with any such restriction.

 

Each such notice of redemption shall specify the date fixed for redemption and the redemption price at which Securities of that series are to be redeemed, and shall state that payment of the redemption price of such Securities to be redeemed will be made at the office or agency of the Company in the Borough of Manhattan, the City and State of New York, upon presentation and surrender of such Securities, that interest accrued to the date fixed for redemption will be paid as specified in said notice, that from and after said date interest will cease to accrue and that the redemption is for a sinking fund, if such is the case. If less than all the Securities of a series are to be redeemed, the notice to the holders of Securities of that series to be redeemed in whole or in part shall specify the particular Securities to be so redeemed. In case any Security is to be redeemed in part only, the notice that relates to such Security shall state the portion of the principal amount thereof to be redeemed, and shall state that on and after the redemption date, upon surrender of such Security, a new Security or Securities of such series in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion thereof will be issued.

 

(b)                 If less than all the Securities of a series are to be redeemed, the Company shall give the Trustee at least 45 days’ notice in advance of the date fixed for redemption as to the aggregate principal amount of Securities of the series to be redeemed, and thereupon the Trustee shall select, by lot or in such other manner as it shall deem appropriate and fair in its discretion and that may provide for the selection of a portion or portions (equal to one thousand U.S. dollars ($1,000) or any integral multiple thereof) of the principal amount of such Securities of a denomination larger than $1,000, the Securities to be redeemed and shall thereafter promptly notify the Company in writing of the numbers of the Securities to be redeemed, in whole or in part.

 

The Company may, if and whenever it shall so elect, by delivery no less than 10 Business Days prior to delivery of a notice of redemption to holders of the Securities of instructions signed on its behalf by its Chief Executive Officer, President or Executive Vice President, instruct the Trustee or any Paying Agent to call all or any part of the Securities of a particular series for redemption and to give notice of redemption in the manner set forth in this Section, such notice to be in the name of the Company or its own name as the Trustee or such Paying Agent may deem advisable. In any case in which notice of redemption is to be given by the Trustee or any such Paying Agent, the Company shall deliver or cause to be delivered to, or permit to remain with, the Trustee or such Paying Agent, as the case may be, such Security Register, transfer books or other records, or suitable copies or extracts therefrom, sufficient to enable the Trustee or such Paying Agent to give any notice by mail, or otherwise delivered in accordance with the applicable procedures of the Depositary, that may be required under the provisions of this Section.

 

Section 3.03                Payment Upon Redemption.

 

(a)                 If the giving of notice of redemption shall have been completed as above provided, the Securities or portions of Securities of the series to be redeemed specified in such notice shall become due and payable on the date and at the place stated in such notice at the applicable redemption price, together with interest accrued to the date fixed for redemption and interest on such Securities or portions of Securities shall cease to accrue on and after the date fixed for redemption, unless the Company shall default in the payment of such redemption price and accrued interest with respect to any such Security or portion thereof. On presentation and surrender of such Securities on or after the date fixed for redemption at the place of payment specified in the notice, said Securities shall be paid and redeemed at the applicable redemption price for such series, together with interest accrued thereon to the date fixed for redemption (but if the date fixed for redemption is an interest payment date, the interest installment payable on such date shall be payable to the registered holder at the close of business on the applicable record date pursuant to Section 2.03).

 

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(b)                  Upon presentation of any Security of such series that is to be redeemed in part only, the Company shall execute and the Trustee shall authenticate and the office or agency where the Security is presented shall deliver to the holder thereof, at the expense of the Company, a new Security of the same series of authorized denominations in principal amount equal to the unredeemed portion of the Security so presented.

 

Section 3.04                Sinking Fund.

 

The provisions of Sections 3.04, 3.05 and 3.06 shall be applicable to any sinking fund for the retirement of Securities of a series, except as otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 2.01 for Securities of such series.

 

The minimum amount of any sinking fund payment provided for by the terms of Securities of any series is herein referred to as a “mandatory sinking fund payment,” and any payment in excess of such minimum amount provided for by the terms of Securities of any series is herein referred to as an “optional sinking fund payment”. If provided for by the terms of Securities of any series, the cash amount of any sinking fund payment may be subject to reduction as provided in Section 3.05. Each sinking fund payment shall be applied to the redemption of Securities of any series as provided for by the terms of Securities of such series.

 

Section 3.05                Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities.

 

The Company (i) may deliver Outstanding Securities of a series (other than any Securities previously called for redemption) and (ii) may apply as a credit Securities of a series that have been redeemed either at the election of the Company pursuant to the terms of such Securities or through the application of permitted optional sinking fund payments pursuant to the terms of such Securities, in each case in satisfaction of all or any part of any sinking fund payment with respect to the Securities of such series required to be made pursuant to the terms of such Securities as provided for by the terms of such series, provided that such Securities have not been previously so credited. Such Securities shall be received and credited for such purpose by the Trustee at the redemption price specified in such Securities for redemption through operation of the sinking fund and the amount of such sinking fund payment shall be reduced accordingly.

 

Section 3.06                Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund.

 

Not less than 45 days prior to each sinking fund payment date for any series of Securities, the Company will deliver to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate specifying the amount of the next ensuing sinking fund payment for that series pursuant to the terms of the series, the portion thereof, if any, that is to be satisfied by delivering and crediting Securities of that series pursuant to Section 3.05 and the basis for such credit and will, together with such Officers’ Certificate, deliver to the Trustee any Securities to be so delivered. Not less than 30 days before each such sinking fund payment date the Trustee shall select the Securities to be redeemed upon such sinking fund payment date in the manner specified in Section 3.02 and cause notice of the redemption thereof to be given in the name of and at the expense of the Company in the manner provided in Section 3.02. Such notice having been duly given, the redemption of such Securities shall be made upon the terms and in the manner stated in Section 3.03.

 

ARTICLE IV

 

CERTAIN COVENANTS

 

Section 4.01                Payment of Principal, Premium and Interest.

 

(a)                  The Company shall pay or cause to be paid the principal of and premium, if any, and interest (including interest accruing during any Deferral Period) on the Securities on or prior to the dates and in the manner provided in such Securities or pursuant to this Indenture. An installment of principal, premium, if any, or interest shall be considered paid on the applicable due date if on such date the Trustee or the Paying Agent holds, in accordance with this Indenture, money sufficient to pay all of such installment then due.

 

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(b)                  Notwithstanding the provisions of Section 4.01(a) or any other provision herein to the contrary, the Company shall have the right, as provided in an Officer’s Certificate or Supplemental Indenture issued pursuant to Section 2.01, in its sole and absolute discretion at any time and from time to time while the Securities of any series are outstanding, so long as no Event of Default with respect to such series of Securities has occurred and is continuing, to defer payments of interest by extending the interest payment period for such series of Securities for the maximum consecutive period, if any, specified for such series of Securities, provided that such Deferral Period (or any extension thereof) may not extend beyond the Stated Maturity date or Redemption Date of any Security of such series, and must end on an Interest Payment Date or, if the Securities are redeemed, on an Interest Payment Date or the Redemption Date for such Securities, and provided further that at the end of each Deferral Period the Company shall pay all interest then accrued and unpaid (together with interest thereon to the extent permitted by applicable law at the rate accruing on such Securities). Prior to the termination of a Deferral Period, the Company may shorten or may further extend the interest payment period for such series of Securities, provided that such Deferral Period together with all such previous and further extensions may not exceed the maximum consecutive period specified for such series of Securities, end on a date other than an Interest Payment Date or extend beyond the Stated Maturity date or Redemption Date of any Security of such series. The Company shall give the Trustee written notice of the Company’s election to begin a Deferral Period for any series of Securities and any shortening or extension thereof at least five Business Days prior to the date the interest on such Securities is payable. The Company shall give or cause the Trustee to give notice (a form of which shall be provided by the Company to the Trustee) of the Company’s election to begin a Deferral Period to the Holders by first class mail, postage prepaid, or otherwise delivered in accordance with the applicable procedures of the Depositary.

 

Section 4.02                Maintenance of Office or Agency.

 

So long as any series of the Securities remain Outstanding, the Company agrees to maintain an office or agency in the Borough of Manhattan, the City and State of New York, with respect to each such series and at such other location or locations as may be designated as provided in this Section 4.02, where (i) Securities of that series may be presented for payment, (ii) Securities of that series may be presented as hereinabove authorized for registration of transfer and exchange, and (iii) notices and demands to or upon the Company in respect of the Securities of that series and this Indenture may be given or served, such designation to continue with respect to such office or agency until the Company shall, by written notice signed by its Chief Executive Officer, President or Executive Vice President and delivered to the trustee, designate some other office or agency for such purposes or any of them. If at any time the Company shall fail to maintain any such required office or agency or shall fail to furnish the Trustee with the address thereof, such presentations, notices and demands may be made or served at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, and the Company hereby appoints the Trustee as its agent to receive all such presentations, notices and demands.

 

The Company may also from time to time designate one or more other offices or agencies where the Securities of one or more series may be presented or surrendered for any or all such purposes and may from time to time rescind such designations; provided, however, that no such designation or rescission shall in any manner relieve the Company of its obligation to maintain an office or agency in each Place of Payment for Securities of any series for such purposes. The Company will give prompt written notice to the Trustee of any such designation or rescission and of any change in the location of any such other office or agency.

 

Section 4.03                Paying Agents.

 

(a)                  If the Company shall appoint one or more Paying Agents for all or any series of the Securities, other than the Trustee, the Company will cause each such Paying Agent to execute and deliver to the Trustee an instrument in which such agent shall agree with the Trustee, subject to the provisions of this Section:

 

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(1)                  that it will hold all sums held by it as such agent for the payment of the principal of and premium, if any or interest on the Securities of that series (whether such sums have been paid to it by the Company or by any other obligor of such Securities) in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled thereto;

 

(2)                  that it will give the Trustee notice of any failure by the Company (or by any other obligor of such Securities) to make any payment of the principal of and premium, if any or interest on the Securities of that series when the same shall be due and payable;

 

(3)                  that it will, at any time during the continuance of any failure referred to in the preceding paragraph (a)(2) above, upon the written request of the Trustee, forthwith pay to the Trustee all sums so held in trust by such Paying Agent; and

 

(4)                  that it will perform all other duties of Paying Agent as set forth in this Indenture.

 

(b)                  If the Company shall act as its own Paying Agent with respect to any series of the Securities, it will on or before each due date of the principal of, and premium, if any, or interest on Securities of that series, set aside, segregate and hold in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled thereto a sum sufficient to pay such principal, and premium, if any, or interest so becoming due on Securities of that series until such sums shall be paid to such Persons or otherwise disposed of as herein provided and will promptly notify the Trustee of such action, or any failure (by it or any other obligor on such Securities) to take such action. Whenever the Company shall have one or more Paying Agents for any series of Securities, it will, prior to each due date of the principal of, and premium, if any, or interest on any Securities of that series, deposit with the Paying Agent a sum sufficient to pay the principal, and premium, if any, or interest so becoming due, such sum to be held in trust for the benefit of the Persons entitled to such principal, premium or interest, and (unless such Paying Agent is the Trustee) the Company will promptly notify the Trustee of this action or failure so to act.

 

(c)                  Notwithstanding anything in this Section to the contrary, (i) the agreement to hold sums in trust as provided in this Section is subject to the provisions of Section 11.05, and (ii) the Company may at any time, for the purpose of obtaining the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture or for any other purpose, pay, or direct any Paying Agent to pay, to the Trustee all sums held in trust by the Company or such Paying Agent, such sums to be held by the Trustee upon the same terms and conditions as those upon which such sums were held by the Company or such Paying Agent; and, upon such payment by any Paying Agent to the Trustee, such Paying Agent shall be released from all further liability with respect to such money.

 

(d)                  Except as otherwise specified with respect to a series of Securities in accordance with the provisions of Section 2.01, any money or Government Obligations deposited with the Trustee or any Paying Agent, or then held by the Company, in trust for the payment of the principal of or any premium or interest on any Security of any series and remaining unclaimed for two years after such principal, premium or interest has become due and payable shall be paid to the Company at its option at the request of the Company, or (if then held by the Company) shall be discharged from such trust; and the holder of such Security shall thereafter, as an unsecured general creditor, look only to the Company for payment thereof, and all liability of the Trustee or such Paying Agent with respect to such trust money, and all liability of the Company as trustee thereof, shall thereupon cease; provided, however, that the Trustee or such Paying Agent, before being required to make any such repayment, may at the expense of the Company cause to be published once, in a newspaper published in the English language, customarily published on each Business Day and of general circulation in the Borough of Manhattan, The City of New York, notice that such money remains unclaimed and that, after a date specified therein, which shall not be less than 30 days from the date of such publication, any unclaimed balance of such money then remaining will be repaid to the Company.

 

Section 4.04                Statement by Officers as to Default.

 

The Company will deliver to the Trustee, within 120 days after the end of each fiscal year of the Company ending after the date hereof, an Officers’ Certificate, stating whether or not to the best knowledge of the signers thereof the Company is in default in the performance and observance of any of the terms, provisions and conditions of this Indenture (without regard to any period of grace or requirement of notice provided hereunder) and, if the Company shall be in default, specifying all such defaults and the nature and status thereof of which they may have knowledge.

 

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The Company shall deliver to the Trustee, as soon as possible and in any event within five (5) days after the Company becomes aware of the occurrence of any Event of Default or an event which, with notice or the lapse of time or both, would constitute an Event of Default, an Officers’ Certificate setting forth the details of such Event of Default or default and the action which the Company proposes to take with respect thereto.

 

Section 4.05                Existence.

 

Subject to Article X, the Company will do or cause to be done all things necessary to preserve and keep in full force and effect its existence, rights (charter and statutory) and franchises; provided, however, that the Company shall not be required to preserve any such right or franchise if the Board of Directors shall determine that the preservation thereof is no longer desirable in the conduct of the business of the Company and that the loss thereof is not disadvantageous in any material respect to the holders.

 

Section 4.06                Payment of Taxes.

 

The Company will pay or discharge or cause to be paid or discharged, before the same shall become delinquent, all taxes, assessments and governmental charges levied or imposed upon the Company or any Subsidiary or upon the income, profits or property of the Company or any Subsidiary, which, if unpaid, might by law become a lien upon the property of the Company or any Subsidiary; provided, however, that the Company shall not be required to pay or discharge or cause to be paid or discharged any such tax, assessment or governmental charge whose amount, applicability or validity is being contested in good faith by appropriate proceedings.

 

Section 4.07                Limitation on Liens.

 

Except as otherwise specified with respect to a series of Securities in accordance with the provisions of Section 2.01, and for so long as any Securities shall remain Outstanding, the Company will not, and will not permit any Subsidiary to, directly or indirectly, create, assume, incur, or guarantee any indebtedness for money borrowed (“Indebtedness”) which is secured by a pledge of, lien on or security interest in (such pledges, liens and security interests being hereinafter called a “Lien”) any Capital Stock, whether such Capital Stock is now owned or shall hereafter be acquired, of any (i) Designated Subsidiary or (ii) Subsidiary of the Company that owns, directly or indirectly, all or substantially all of the Capital Stock of any Designated Subsidiary, without effectively providing that the Securities then Outstanding and, at the option of the Company, any other Indebtedness of the Company or any Subsidiary ranking equally and ratably with such Securities and then existing or thereafter created, shall be secured equally and ratably with (or prior to) such other Indebtedness secured by such Lien; provided, however, that this limitation shall not apply to Indebtedness secured by a Lien on any Capital Stock of any Subsidiary at the time it becomes a Designated Subsidiary, including any renewals, extensions or replacements of such secured Indebtedness; provided further, however, that these restrictions shall not apply to Indebtedness secured by: (i) Liens on any shares of Capital Stock acquired from a person which is merged with or into, or which sells all or substantially all of its assets to, the Company or a Designated Subsidiary, (ii) Liens to secure Indebtedness of a Designated Subsidiary to the Company or another Designated Subsidiary but only as long as such Indebtedness is owned or held by the Company or a Designated Subsidiary and (iii) any extension, renewal or replacement (or successive extensions, renewals or replacements), in whole or in part, of any Lien referred to in the foregoing clauses (i) and (ii). “Designated Subsidiary” means any Subsidiary of the Company, the Consolidated Net Worth of which represents at least 10% of the Consolidated Net Worth of the Company. “Consolidated Net Worth” means total consolidated assets of the Company minus total consolidated liabilities of the Company as calculated in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles.

 

Section 4.08                Waiver of Certain Covenants.

 

Except as otherwise specified as contemplated by Section 2.01 for Securities of such series, the Company may, with respect to the Securities of any series, omit in any particular instance to comply with any term, provision or condition set forth in any covenant provided pursuant to Sections 2.01(16), 9.01(4) or 9.01(7) for the benefit of the holders of such series or in either of Sections 4.06 or 4.07 if before the time for such compliance the holders of at least a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of such series shall, by act of such holders, either waive such compliance in such instance or generally waive compliance with such term, provision or condition, but no such waiver shall extend to or affect such term, provision or condition except to the extent so expressly waived, and, until such waiver shall become effective, the obligations of the Company and the duties of the Trustee in respect of any such term, provision or condition shall remain in full force and effect.

 

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Section 4.09                Appointment to Fill Vacancy in Office of Trustee.

 

The Company, whenever necessary to avoid or fill a vacancy in the office of Trustee, will appoint, in the manner provided in Section 7.10, a Trustee, so that there shall at all times be a Trustee hereunder.

 

Section 4.10               Compliance with Consolidation Provisions.

 

The Company will not, while any of the Securities remain Outstanding, consolidate with, or merge into, or merge into itself, or sell or convey all or substantially all of its property to any other company unless the provisions of Article X hereof are complied with.

 

Section 4.11               Calculation of Original Issue Discount.

 

The Company shall file with the Trustee promptly at the end of each calendar year (i) a written notice specifying the amount of original issue discount (including daily rates and accrual periods) accrued on Outstanding Securities as of the end of such year and (ii) such other specific information relating to such original issue discount as may then be relevant under the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended from time to time.

 

ARTICLE V

 

SECURITYHOLDERS’ LISTS AND REPORTS BY
THE COMPANY AND THE TRUSTEE

 

Section 5.01                Company to Furnish Trustee Names and Addresses of Securityholders.

 

The Company will furnish or cause to be furnished to the Trustee (a) on a monthly basis on each regular record date a list, in such form as the Trustee may reasonably require, of the names and addresses of the holders of each series of Securities as of such regular record date, provided that the Company shall not be obligated to furnish or cause to furnish such list at any time that the list shall not differ in any respect from the most recent list furnished to the Trustee by the Company and (b) at such other times as the Trustee may request in writing within 30 days after the receipt by the Company of any such request, a list of similar form and content as of a date not more than 15 days prior to the time such list is furnished; provided, however, that, in either case, no such list need be furnished for any series for which the Trustee shall be the Security Registrar.

 

Section 5.02               Preservation of Information; Communications with Securityholders.

 

(a)                  The Trustee shall preserve, in as current a form as is reasonably practicable, all information as to the names and addresses of the holders of Securities contained in the most recent list furnished to it as provided in Section 5.01 and as to the names and addresses of holders of Securities received by the Trustee in its capacity as Security Registrar (if acting in such capacity).

 

(b)                  The Trustee may destroy any list furnished to it as provided in Section 5.01 upon receipt of a new list so furnished.

 

(c)                  Securityholders may communicate as provided in Section 312(b) of the Trust Indenture Act with other Securityholders with respect to their rights under this Indenture or under the Securities.

 

Section 5.03               Reports by the Company.

 

(a)                  The Company covenants and agrees to file with the Trustee, within 15 days after the Company is required to file the same with the Commission, copies of the annual reports and of the information, documents and other reports (or copies of such portions of any of the foregoing as the Commission may from time to time by rules and regulations prescribe) that the Company may be required to file with the Commission pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Exchange Act; or, if the Company is not required to file information, documents or reports pursuant to either of such sections, then to file with the Trustee and the Commission, in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed from time to time by the Commission, such of the supplementary and periodic information, documents and reports that may be required pursuant to Section 13 of the Exchange Act, in respect of a security listed and registered on a national securities exchange as may be prescribed from time to time in such rules and regulations.

 

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(b)                  The Company covenants and agrees to file with the Trustee and the Commission, in accordance with the rules and regulations prescribed from time to time by the Commission, such additional information, documents and reports with respect to compliance by the Company with the conditions and covenants provided for in this Indenture as may be required from time to time by such rules and regulations.

 

(c)                                  The Company covenants and agrees to transmit to the Securityholders, such summaries of any information, documents and reports required to be filed by the Company pursuant to subsections (a) and (b) of this Section as may be required by the Trust Indenture Act and the rules and regulations prescribed from time to time by the Commission.

 

(d)                  Delivery of such reports, information and documents to the Trustee is for informational purposes only and the Trustee’s receipt of such shall not constitute actual or constructive notice of any information contained therein or determinable from information contained therein, including the Company’s compliance with any of its covenants hereunder (as to which the Trustee is entitled to rely exclusively on Officers’ Certificates).

 

Section 5.04               Reports by the Trustee.

 

(a)                  On or before July 15 in each year in which any of the Securities are Outstanding, the Trustee shall transmit by mail, first class postage prepaid, to the Securityholders, as their names and addresses appear upon the Security Register, a brief report dated as of the preceding May 15, if and to the extent required under Section 313(a) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

(b)                  The Trustee shall comply with Sections 313(b) and 313(c) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

(c)                  A copy of each such report shall, at the time of such transmission to Securityholders, be filed by the Trustee with the Company, with each stock exchange upon which any Securities are listed (if so listed) and also with the Commission. The Company agrees to notify the Trustee when any Securities become listed on any stock exchange or delisted therefrom.

 

ARTICLE VI

 

REMEDIES OF THE TRUSTEE AND SECURITYHOLDERS
ON EVENT OF DEFAULT

 

Section 6.01               Events of Default.

 

(a)                  Whenever used herein with respect to Securities of a particular series, “Event of Default” means any one or more of the following events that has occurred and is continuing, unless such event is specifically deleted or modified in accordance with Section 2.01:

 

(1)                  the Company defaults in the payment of any installment of interest upon any of the Securities of that series, as and when the same shall become due and payable, and continuance of such default for a period of 30 days; provided, however, that during any Deferral Period for the Securities of that series, failure to pay interest on the Securities of that series shall not constitute a default in the payment of interest for this purpose; and, provided, further, that a valid extension of an interest payment period by the Company in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental hereto, shall not constitute a default in the payment of interest for this purpose;

 

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(2)                  the Company defaults in the payment of the principal of, or premium, if any, on any of the Securities of that series as and when the same shall become due and payable whether at maturity, upon redemption, because of acceleration or otherwise, or in any payment required by any sinking or analogous fund established with respect to that series; provided, however, that a valid extension of the maturity of such Securities in accordance with the terms of any indenture supplemental hereto shall not constitute a default in the payment of principal or premium, if any;

 

(3)                  the Company fails to observe or perform any other of its covenants or agreements with respect to that series contained in this Indenture or otherwise established with respect to that series of Securities pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof (other than a covenant or agreement that has been expressly included in this Indenture solely for the benefit of one or more series of Securities other than such series) for a period of 90 days after the date on which written notice of such failure, requiring the same to be remedied and stating that such notice is a “Notice of Default” hereunder, shall have been given to the Company by the Trustee, by registered or certified mail, or to the Company and the Trustee by the holders of at least 25% in principal amount of the Securities of that series at the time Outstanding;

 

(4)                  an event of default, as defined in any mortgage, indenture or instrument under which there may be issued, or by which there may be secured or evidenced, any Indebtedness for money borrowed of the Company (other than a default under this Indenture with respect to Securities of any series or a default with respect to any non-recourse Indebtedness), whether such Indebtedness now exists or shall hereafter be created, shall happen and shall result in a principal amount in excess of $25 million of Indebtedness for borrowed money becoming or being declared due and payable prior to the date on which it would otherwise have become due and payable, and such acceleration shall not have been rescinded or annulled, or such Indebtedness shall not have been discharged, within a period of 15 days after there has been given, by registered or certified United States mail, to the Company by the Trustee or to the Company and the Trustee by the holders of at least 25% in aggregate principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of that series a written notice specifying such event of default and requiring the Company to cause such acceleration to be rescinded or annulled or to cause such Indebtedness to be discharged and stating that such notice is a “Notice of Default” hereunder;

 

(5)                  the entry by a court of competent jurisdiction of:

 

(i)                  a decree or order for relief in respect of the Company in an involuntary proceeding under any applicable Bankruptcy Law and such decree or order shall remain unstayed and in effect for a period of 60 consecutive days;

 

(ii)                 a decree or order adjudging the Company to be insolvent, or approving a petition seeking reorganization, arrangement, adjustment or composition of the Company and such decree or order shall remain unstayed and in effect for a period of 60 consecutive days; or

 

(iii)                a final and non-appealable order appointing a Custodian of the Company or of any substantial part of the property of the Company, or ordering the winding up or liquidation of the affairs of the Company;

  

(6)                  the Company pursuant to or within the meaning of any Bankruptcy Law: (i) commences a voluntary case or proceeding; (ii) consents to the entry of an order for relief against it in an involuntary case or proceeding; (iii) files a petition or answer or consent seeking reorganization or relief or consents to such filing or to the appointment of or taking possession by a Custodian of it or for all or substantially all of its property, and such Custodian is not discharged within 60 days; (iv) makes a general assignment for the benefit of its creditors; or (v) admits in writing its inability to pay its debts generally as they become due; or

 

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(7)                  any other Event of Default provided for pursuant to Section 2.01 with respect to Securities of that series.

 

(b)                  Except as otherwise specified with respect to a series of Securities in accordance with the provisions of Section 2.01, if an Event of Default (other than an Event of Default specified in Sections 6.01(a)(5) or 6.01(a)(6)) with respect to Securities of any series at the time Outstanding occurs and is continuing, either the Trustee or the holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that series then Outstanding hereunder, by notice in writing to the Company (and to the Trustee if given by such Securityholders), may declare the principal of all the Securities of that series (or, if any Securities of that series are Original Issue Discount Securities, such portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms of such series) to be due and payable immediately, and upon any such declaration the same shall become and shall be immediately due and payable. If an Event of Default specified in Sections 6.01(a)(5) or 6.01(a)(6) with respect to Securities of any series at the time Outstanding occurs, the principal amount of all the Securities of that series (or, if any Securities of that series are Original Issue Discount Securities, such portion of the principal amount of such Securities as may be specified by the terms thereof) shall automatically, and without any declaration or other action on the part of the Trustee or any holder, become immediately due and payable.

 

(c)                  At any time after the principal of the Securities of that series shall have been so declared due and payable, and before any judgment or decree for the payment of the moneys due shall have been obtained or entered as hereinafter provided, the holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of that series then Outstanding hereunder, by written notice to the Company and the Trustee, may rescind and annul such declaration and its consequences if: (i) the Company has paid or deposited with the Trustee a sum sufficient to pay all matured installments of interest upon all the Securities of that series and the principal of , and premium, if any, on any and all Securities of that series that shall have become due otherwise than by acceleration (with interest upon such principal and premium, if any, and, to the extent that such payment is enforceable under applicable law, upon overdue installments of interest, at the rate or Yield to Maturity (in the case of Original Issue Discount Securities) expressed in the Securities of that series (or at the respective rates of interest or Yields to Maturity of all the Securities, as the case may be) to the date of such payment or deposit) and the amount payable to the Trustee under Section 7.06, and (ii) any and all Events of Default under the Indenture with respect to such series, other than the nonpayment of principal on Securities of that series (or, if any Securities of that series are Original Issue Discount Securities, such portion of the principal amount as may be specified in the terms of such series) that shall not have become due by their terms, shall have been remedied or waived as provided in Section 6.08.

 

No such rescission and annulment shall extend to or shall affect any subsequent default or impair any right consequent thereon.

 

(d)                  In case the Trustee shall have proceeded to enforce any right with respect to Securities of that series under this Indenture and such proceedings shall have been discontinued or abandoned because of such rescission or annulment or for any other reason or shall have been determined adversely to the Trustee, then and in every such case the Company, and the Trustee shall be restored respectively to their former positions and rights hereunder, and all rights, remedies and powers of the Company and the Trustee shall continue as though no such proceedings had been taken.

 

Section 6.02               Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee.

 

(a)                  The Company covenants that (1) in case it shall default in the payment of any installment of interest on any of the Securities of a series, or any payment required by any sinking or analogous fund established with respect to that series as and when the same shall have become due and payable, and such default shall have continued for a period of 90 Business Days, or (2) in case it shall default in the payment of the principal of, or premium, if any, on any of the Securities of a series when the same shall have become due and payable, whether upon maturity of the Securities of a series or upon redemption or upon declaration or otherwise, then, upon demand of the Trustee, the Company will pay to the Trustee, for the benefit of the holders of the Securities of that series, the whole amount that then shall have become due and payable on all such Securities for principal, and premium, if any, or interest, or both, as the case may be, with interest upon the overdue principal, and premium, if any, and (to the extent that payment of such interest is enforceable under applicable law) upon overdue installments of interest at the rate expressed in the Securities of that series; and, in addition thereto, such further amount as shall be sufficient to cover the costs and expenses of collection, and the amount payable to the Trustee under Section 7.06.

 

(b)                  If the Company shall fail to pay such amounts forthwith upon such demand, the Trustee, in its own name and as trustee of an express trust, shall be entitled and empowered to institute any action or proceedings at law or in equity for the collection of the sums so due and unpaid, and may prosecute any such action or proceeding to judgment or final decree, and may enforce any such judgment or final decree against the Company or other obligor upon the Securities of that series and collect the moneys adjudged or decreed to be payable in the manner provided by law out of the property of the Company or other obligor upon the Securities of that series, wherever situated.

 

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(c)                  In case of any receivership, insolvency, liquidation, bankruptcy, reorganization, readjustment, arrangement, composition or judicial proceedings affecting the Company, or its creditors or property, the Trustee shall have power to intervene in such proceedings and take any action therein that may be permitted by the court and shall (except as may be otherwise provided by law) be entitled to file such proofs of claim and other papers and documents as may be necessary or advisable in order to have the claims of the Trustee and of the holders of Securities of such series allowed for the entire amount due and payable by the Company under the Indenture at the date of institution of such proceedings and for any additional amount that may become due and payable by the Company after such date, and to collect and receive any moneys or other property payable or deliverable on any such claim, and to distribute the same after the deduction of the amount payable to the Trustee under Section 7.06; and any receiver, assignee or trustee in bankruptcy or reorganization is hereby authorized by each of the holders of Securities of such series to make such payments to the Trustee, and, in the event that the Trustee shall consent to the making of such payments directly to such Securityholders, to pay to the Trustee any amount due it under Section 7.06.

 

(d)                  All rights of action and of asserting claims under this Indenture, or under any of the terms established with respect to Securities of that series, may be enforced by the Trustee without the possession of any of such Securities, or the production thereof at any trial or other proceeding relative thereto, and any such suit or proceeding instituted by the Trustee shall be brought in its own name as trustee of an express trust, and any recovery of judgment shall, after provision for payment to the Trustee of any amounts due under Section 7.06, be for the ratable benefit of the holders of the Securities of such series.

 

In case of an Event of Default hereunder, the Trustee may in its discretion proceed to protect and enforce the rights vested in it by this Indenture by such appropriate judicial proceedings as the Trustee shall deem most effectual to protect and enforce any of such rights, either at law or in equity or in bankruptcy or otherwise, whether for the specific enforcement of any covenant or agreement contained in the Indenture or in aid of the exercise of any power granted in this Indenture, or to enforce any other legal or equitable right vested in the Trustee by this Indenture or by law.

 

Nothing contained herein shall be deemed to authorize the Trustee to authorize or consent to or accept or adopt on behalf of any Securityholder any plan of reorganization, arrangement, adjustment or composition affecting the Securities of that series or the rights of any holder thereof or to authorize the Trustee to vote in respect of the claim of any Securityholder in any such proceeding.

 

Section 6.03               Application of Moneys Collected.

 

Any moneys collected by the Trustee pursuant to this Article with respect to a particular series of Securities shall be applied in the following order, at the date or dates fixed by the Trustee and, in case of the distribution of such moneys on account of principal, or premium, if any, or interest, upon presentation of the Securities of that series, and notation thereon the payment, if only partially paid, and upon surrender thereof if fully paid:

 

FIRST: To the payment of costs and expenses of collection and of all amounts payable to the Trustee under Section 7.06;

 

SECOND: To the payment of the amounts then due and unpaid upon Securities of such series for principal, and premium, if any, and interest, in respect of which or for the benefit of which such money has been collected, ratably, without preference or priority of any kind, according to the amounts due and payable on such Securities for principal, and premium, if any, and interest, respectively; and

 

THIRD: To the payment of the remainder, if any, to the Company, its successors or assigns or to whomever may be lawfully entitled to receive the same or as a court of competent jurisdiction may direct.

 

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Section 6.04               Limitation on Suits.

 

No holder of any Security of any series shall have any right by virtue or by availing of any provision of this Indenture to institute any suit, action or proceeding in equity or at law upon or under or with respect to this Indenture or for the appointment of a receiver or trustee, or for any other remedy hereunder, unless (i) such holder previously shall have given to the Trustee written notice of an Event of Default and of the continuance thereof with respect to the Securities of such series specifying such Event of Default, as hereinbefore provided; (ii) the holders of not less than 25% in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of such series then Outstanding shall have made written request upon the Trustee to institute such action, suit or proceeding in its own name as trustee hereunder; (iii) such holder or holders shall have offered to the Trustee such reasonable indemnity as it may require against the costs, expenses and liabilities to be incurred therein or thereby; and (iv) the Trustee for 60 days after its receipt of such notice, request and offer of indemnity, shall have failed to institute any such action, suit or proceeding and (v) during such 60 day period, the holders of a majority in principal amount of the Securities of that series do not give the Trustee a direction inconsistent with the request.

 

Notwithstanding anything contained herein to the contrary, any other provisions of this Indenture, the right of any holder of any Security to receive payment of the principal of, and premium, if any, and interest on such Security, as therein provided, on or after the respective due dates expressed in such Security (or in the case of redemption, on the redemption date), or to institute suit for the enforcement of any such payment on or after such respective dates or redemption date, shall not be impaired or affected without the consent of such holder and by accepting a Security hereunder it is expressly understood, intended and covenanted by the taker and holder of every Security of such series with every other such taker and holder and the Trustee, that no one or more holders of Securities of such series shall have any right in any manner whatsoever by virtue or by availing of any provision of this Indenture to affect, disturb or prejudice the rights of the holders of any other of such Securities, or to obtain or seek to obtain priority over or preference to any other such holder, or to enforce any right under this Indenture, except in the manner herein provided and for the equal, ratable and common benefit of all holders of Securities of such series. For the protection and enforcement of the provisions of this Section, each and every Securityholder and the Trustee shall be entitled to such relief as can be given either at law or in equity.

 

Section 6.05               Rights and Remedies Cumulative; Delay or Omission Not Waiver.

 

(a)                  Except as otherwise provided in Section 2.07, all powers and remedies given by this Article to the Trustee or to the Securityholders shall, to the extent permitted by law, be deemed cumulative and not exclusive of any other powers and remedies available to the Trustee or the holders of the Securities, by judicial proceedings or otherwise, to enforce the performance or observance of the covenants and agreements contained in this Indenture or otherwise established with respect to such Securities.

 

(b)                  No delay or omission of the Trustee or of any holder of any of the Securities to exercise any right or power accruing upon any Event of Default occurring and continuing as aforesaid shall impair any such right or power, or shall be construed to be a waiver of any such default or on acquiescence therein; and, subject to the provisions of Section 6.04, every power and remedy given by this Article or by law to the Trustee or the Securityholders may be exercised from time to time, and as often as shall be deemed expedient, by the Trustee or by the Securityholders.

 

Section 6.06               Control by Securityholders.

 

The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding, determined in accordance with Section 8.04, shall have the right to direct the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred on the Trustee with respect to such series; provided, however, that such direction shall not be in conflict with any rule of law or with this Indenture or be unduly prejudicial to the rights of holders of Securities of any other series at the time Outstanding determined in accordance with Section 8.04. Subject to the provisions of Section 7.01 and Section 7.02(d), the Trustee shall have the right to decline to follow any such direction if the Trustee in good faith shall, by a Responsible Officer or Officers of the Trustee, determine that the proceeding so directed would involve the Trustee in personal liability.

 

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Section 6.07               Undertaking to Pay Costs.

 

All parties to this Indenture agree, and each holder of any Securities by such holder’s acceptance thereof shall be deemed to have agreed, that any court may in its discretion require, in any suit for the enforcement of any right or remedy under this Indenture, or in any suit against the Trustee for any action taken or omitted by it as Trustee, the filing by any party litigant in such suit of an undertaking to pay the costs of such suit, and that such court may in its discretion assess reasonable costs, including reasonable attorneys’ fees and expenses, against any party litigant in such suit, having due regard to the merits and good faith of the claims or defenses made by such party litigant; but the provisions of this Section shall not apply to any suit instituted by the Trustee, to any suit instituted by any Securityholder, or group of Securityholders, holding more than 10% in aggregate principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of any series, or to any suit instituted by any Securityholder for the enforcement of the payment of the principal of, or premium, if any, or interest on any Security of such series, on or after the respective due dates expressed in such Security or established pursuant to this Indenture.

 

Section 6.08               Waiver of Past Defaults.

 

The holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of any series, determined in accordance with Section 8.04, may on behalf of the holders of all the Securities of such series waive any past default hereunder with respect to such series and its consequences, except a default

 

(1)                  in the payment of the principal of or any premium or interest on any Security of such series, or

 

(2)                  in respect of a covenant or provision hereof which under Article IX cannot be modified or amended without the consent of the holder of each Outstanding Security of such series affected.

 

Upon any such waiver, such default shall cease to exist, and any Event of Default arising therefrom shall be deemed to have been cured, for every purpose of this Indenture; but no such waiver shall extend to any subsequent or other default or impair any right consequent thereon.

 

ARTICLE VII

 

CONCERNING THE TRUSTEE

 

Section 7.01               Certain Duties and Responsibilities of Trustee.

 

(a)                  The Trustee, prior to the occurrence of an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a series and after the curing of all Events of Default with respect to the Securities of that series that may have occurred, shall undertake to perform with respect to the Securities of such series such duties and only such duties as are specifically set forth in this Indenture, and no implied covenants shall be read into this Indenture against the Trustee. In case an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a series has occurred (that has not been cured or waived), the Trustee shall exercise with respect to Securities of that series such of the rights and powers vested in it by this Indenture, and use the same degree of care and skill in their exercise, as a prudent person would exercise or use under the circumstances in the conduct of his or her own affairs.

 

(b)                  No provision of this Indenture shall be construed to relieve the Trustee from liability for its own negligent action, its own negligent failure to act, or its own willful misconduct, except that:

 

(1)                  prior to the occurrence of an Event of Default with respect to the Securities of a series and after the curing or waiving of all such Events of Default with respect to that series that may have occurred:

 

(a)                  the duties and obligations of the Trustee shall with respect to the Securities of such series be determined solely by the express provisions of this Indenture, and the Trustee shall not be liable with respect to the Securities of such series except for the performance of such duties and obligations as are specifically set forth in this Indenture, and no implied covenants or obligations shall be read into this Indenture against the Trustee; and

 

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(b)                  in the absence of bad faith on the part of the Trustee, the Trustee may with respect to the Securities of such series conclusively rely, as to the truth of the statements and the correctness of the opinions expressed therein, upon any certificates or opinions furnished to the Trustee and conforming to the requirements of this Indenture; but in the case of any such certificates or opinions that by any provision hereof are specifically required to be furnished to the Trustee, the Trustee shall be under a duty to examine the same to determine whether or not they substantially conform to the requirements of this Indenture (but need not confirm or investigate the accuracy of any mathematical calculations or other facts stated therein);

 

(2)                  the Trustee shall not be liable for any error of judgment made in good faith by a Responsible Officer or Responsible Officers of the Trustee, unless it shall be proved that the Trustee, was negligent in ascertaining the pertinent facts;

 

(3)                  the Trustee shall not be liable with respect to any action taken or omitted to be taken by it in good faith in accordance with the direction of the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding relating to the time, method and place of conducting any proceeding for any remedy available to the Trustee, or exercising any trust or power conferred upon the Trustee under this Indenture with respect to the Securities of that series; and

 

(4)                  None of the provisions contained in this Indenture shall require the Trustee to expend or risk its own funds or otherwise incur personal financial liability in the performance of any of its duties or in the exercise of any of its rights or powers, if there is reasonable ground for believing that the repayment of such funds or liability is not reasonably assured to it under the terms of this Indenture or adequate indemnity against such risk is not reasonably assured to it.

 

Section 7.02               Certain Rights of Trustee.

 

Except as otherwise provided in Section 7.01:

 

(a)                  The Trustee may conclusively rely and shall be fully protected in acting or refraining from acting upon any resolution, certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, consent, order, approval, bond, security or other paper or document believed by it to be genuine and to have been signed or presented by the proper party or parties;

 

(b)                  Any request, direction, order or demand of the Company mentioned herein shall be sufficiently evidenced by a Board Resolution or an instrument signed in the name of the Company, by the Chief Executive Officer, President or Executive Vice President and by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary or the Treasurer or an Assistant Treasurer thereof (unless other evidence in respect thereof is specifically prescribed herein);

 

(c)                  The Trustee may consult with counsel and the advice of such counsel or any Opinion of Counsel shall be full and complete authorization and protection from liability in respect of any action taken or suffered or omitted hereunder in good faith and in reliance thereon;

 

(d)                  The Trustee shall be under no obligation to exercise any of the rights or powers vested in it by this Indenture at the request, order or direction of any of the Securityholders, pursuant to the provisions of this Indenture, unless such Securityholders shall have offered to the Trustee security or indemnity reasonably satisfactory to it against the costs, expenses and liabilities that may be incurred therein or thereby; nothing contained herein shall, however, relieve the Trustee of the obligation, upon the occurrence of an Event of Default with respect to a series of the Securities (that has not been cured or waived) to exercise with respect to Securities of that series such of the rights and powers vested in it by this Indenture, and to use the same degree of care and skill in their exercise, as a prudent person would exercise or use under the circumstances in the conduct of his or her own affairs;

 

(e)                  The Trustee shall not be liable for any action taken or omitted to be taken by it in good faith and believed by it to be authorized or within the discretion or rights or powers conferred upon it by this Indenture;

 

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(f)                  The Trustee shall not be bound to make any investigation into the facts or matters stated in any resolution, certificate, statement, instrument, opinion, report, notice, request, consent, order, approval, bond, security, or other papers or documents, unless requested in writing so to do by the holders of not less than a majority in principal amount of the Outstanding Securities of the particular series affected thereby (determined as provided in Section 8.04); provided, however, that if the payment within a reasonable time to the Trustee of the costs, expenses or liabilities likely to be incurred by it in the making of such investigation is, in the opinion of the Trustee, not reasonably assured to the Trustee by the security afforded to it by the terms of this Indenture, the Trustee may require reasonable indemnity against such costs, expenses or liabilities as a condition to so proceeding. The reasonable expense of every such examination shall be paid by the Company or, if paid by the Trustee, shall be repaid by the Company upon demand;

 

(g)                  The Trustee may execute any of the trusts or powers hereunder or perform any duties hereunder either directly or by or through agents or attorneys and the Trustee shall not be responsible for any misconduct or negligence on the part of any agent or attorney appointed with due care by it hereunder;

 

(h)                  The Trustee shall not be deemed to have notice of any Default or Event of Default unless a Responsible Officer of the Trustee has actual knowledge thereof or unless written notice of any event which is in fact such a Default or Event of Default is received by the Trustee at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee, and such notice references the Securities and this Indenture;

 

(i)                  The rights, privileges, protections, immunities and benefits given to the Trustee, including, without limitation, its right to be indemnified, are extended to, and shall be enforceable by, the Trustee in each of its capacities hereunder, and each agent, custodian and other Person employed to act hereunder;

 

(j)                  The Trustee may request that the Company deliver an Officers’ Certificate setting forth the names of individuals, direct dial telephone numbers and titles of officers authorized at such time to take specified actions pursuant to this Indenture, which Officers’ Certificate may be signed by any person authorized to sign an Officers’ Certificate, including any person specified as so authorized in any such certificate previously delivered and not superseded;

 

(k)                  In no event shall the Trustee be responsible or liable for any failure or delay in the performance of its obligations hereunder arising out of or caused by, directly or indirectly, forces beyond its control, including, without limitation, strikes, work stoppages, accidents, acts of war or terrorism, civil or military disturbances, nuclear or natural catastrophes or acts of God, and interruptions, loss or malfunctions of utilities; provided that the Trustee shall use reasonable efforts which are consistent with accepted practices in the banking industry to resume performance as soon as practicable under the circumstances; and

 

(l)                  The Trustee shall have no liability for special, punitive, or consequential damages (including lost profits), regardless of whether such damages were foreseeable or unforeseeable.

 

Section 7.03               Trustee Not Responsible for Recitals or Issuance or Securities.

 

(a)                  The recitals contained herein and in the Securities shall be taken as the statements of the Company, and the Trustee assumes no responsibility for the correctness of the same.

 

(b)                  The Trustee makes no representations as to the validity or sufficiency of this Indenture or of the Securities.

 

(c)                  The Trustee shall not be accountable for the use or application by the Company of any of the Securities or of the proceeds of such Securities, or for the use or application of any moneys paid over by the Trustee in accordance with any provision of this Indenture or established pursuant to Section 2.01, or for the use or application of any moneys received by any Paying Agent other than the Trustee.

 

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Section 7.04               May Hold Securities.

 

The Trustee or any Paying Agent or Security Registrar, in its individual or any other capacity, may become the owner or pledgee of Securities with the same rights it would have if it were not Trustee, Paying Agent or Security Registrar.

 

Section 7.05               Moneys Held in Trust.

 

Subject to the provisions of Section 11.05, all moneys received by the Trustee shall, until used or applied as herein provided, be held in trust for the purposes for which they were received, but need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by law. The Trustee shall be under no liability for interest on any moneys received by it hereunder except such as it may agree with the Company to pay thereon.

 

Section 7.06               Compensation and Reimbursement.

 

(a)                  The Company covenants and agrees to pay to the Trustee, and the Trustee shall be entitled to, such reasonable compensation (which shall not be limited by any provision of law in regard to the compensation of a trustee of an express trust), as the Company, and the Trustee may from time to time agree in writing, for all services rendered by it in the execution of the trusts hereby created and in the exercise and performance of any of the powers and duties hereunder of the Trustee, and, except as otherwise expressly provided herein, the Company will pay or reimburse the Trustee upon its request for all reasonable expenses, disbursements and advances incurred or made by the Trustee in accordance with any of the provisions of this Indenture (including the reasonable compensation and the expenses and disbursements of its counsel and of all Persons not regularly in its employ) except any such expense, disbursement or advance as shall be determined by a court of competent jurisdiction to have been caused by its own negligence or willful misconduct.  The Company also covenants to fully indemnify the Trustee (and its officers, agents, directors and employees) and any predecessor Trustee for, and to hold it harmless against, any and all loss, liability, claim, damage or expense incurred without negligence or willful misconduct on the part of the Trustee and arising out of or in connection with the acceptance or administration of this trust, including the costs and expenses of defending itself against any claim of liability in the premises.  This indemnity shall survive the termination of this Indenture, payment in full of the Securities and resignation or removal of the Trustee.

 

(b)                  The obligations of the Company under this Section to compensate and indemnify the Trustee and to pay or reimburse the Trustee for expenses, disbursements and advances shall constitute additional indebtedness hereunder. Such additional indebtedness shall be secured by a lien prior to that of the Securities upon all property and funds held or collected by the Trustee as such, except funds held in trust for the benefit of the holders of particular Securities.

 

Section 7.07               Reliance on Officers’ Certificate.

 

Except as otherwise provided in Section 7.01, whenever in the administration of the provisions of this Indenture the Trustee shall deem it necessary or desirable that a matter be proved or established prior to taking or suffering or omitting to take any action hereunder, such matter (unless other evidence in respect thereof be herein specifically prescribed) may, in the absence of negligence or bad faith on the part of the Trustee, be deemed to be conclusively proved and established by an Officers’ Certificate delivered to the Trustee and such certificate, in the absence of negligence or bad faith on the part of the Trustee, shall be full warrant to the Trustee for any action taken, suffered or omitted to be taken by it under the provisions of this Indenture upon the faith thereof.

 

Section 7.08               Disqualification; Conflicting Interests.

 

If the Trustee has or shall acquire any “conflicting interest” within the meaning of Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act, the Trustee and the Company shall in all respects comply with the provisions of Section 310(b) of the Trust Indenture Act.

 

Section 7.09               Corporate Trustee Required; Eligibility.

 

There shall at all times be a Trustee with respect to the Securities issued hereunder which shall at all times be a corporation organized and doing business under the laws of the United States of America or any State or Territory thereof or of the District of Columbia, or a corporation or other Person permitted to act as trustee by the Commission, authorized under such laws to exercise corporate trust powers, having a combined capital and surplus of at least 50 million U.S. dollars ($50,000,000), and subject to supervision or examination by federal, state, territorial, or District of Columbia authority. If such corporation publishes reports of condition at least annually, pursuant to law or to the requirements of the aforesaid supervising or examining authority, then for the purposes of this Section, the combined capital and surplus of such corporation shall be deemed to be its combined capital and surplus as set forth in its most recent report of condition so published. The Company may not, nor may any Person directly or indirectly controlling, controlled by, or under common control with the Company, serve as Trustee. In case at any time the Trustee shall cease to be eligible in accordance with the provisions of this Section, the Trustee shall resign immediately in the manner and with the effect specified in Section 7.10.

 

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Section 7.10              Resignation and Removal; Appointment of Successor.

 

(a)                  The Trustee or any successor hereafter appointed, may at any time resign with respect to the Securities of one or more series by giving written notice thereof to the Company and by transmitting notice of resignation by mail, first class postage prepaid, to the Securityholders of such series, as their names and addresses appear upon the Security Register. Upon receiving such notice of resignation, the Company shall promptly appoint a successor trustee with respect to Securities of such series by written instrument, in duplicate, executed by order of the Board of Directors, one copy of which instrument shall be delivered to the resigning Trustee and one copy to the successor trustee. If no successor trustee shall have been so appointed and have accepted appointment within 30 days after the mailing of such notice of resignation, the resigning Trustee may petition at the expense of the Company any court of competent jurisdiction for the appointment of a successor trustee with respect to Securities of such series, or any Securityholder of that series who has been a bona fide holder of a Security or Securities for at least six months may on behalf of himself and all others similarly situated, petition any such court for the appointment of a successor trustee. Such court may thereupon after such notice, if any, as it may deem proper and prescribe, appoint a successor trustee.

 

(b)                  In case at any time any one of the following shall occur:

 

(1)                  the Trustee shall fail to comply with the provisions of Section 7.08 after written request therefor by the Company or by any Securityholder who has been a bona fide holder of a Security or Securities for at least six months; or

 

(2)                  the Trustee shall cease to be eligible in accordance with the provisions of Section 7.09 and shall fail to resign after written request therefor by the Company or by any such Securityholder; or

 

(3)                  the Trustee shall become incapable of acting, or shall be adjudged a bankrupt or insolvent, or commence a voluntary bankruptcy proceeding, or a receiver of the Trustee or of its property shall be appointed or consented to, or any public officer shall take charge or control of the Trustee or of its property or affairs for the purpose of rehabilitation, conservation or liquidation;

 

then, in any such case, (i) the Company may remove the Trustee with respect to all Securities and appoint a successor trustee by written instrument, in duplicate, executed by order of the Board of Directors, one copy of which instrument shall be delivered to the Trustee so removed and one copy to the successor trustee, or (ii) unless the Trustee’s duty to resign is stayed as provided herein, any Securityholder who has been a bona fide holder of a Security or Securities for at least six months may, on behalf of that holder and all others similarly situated, petition any court of competent jurisdiction for the removal of the Trustee and the appointment of a successor trustee.  If an instrument of acceptance by a successor trustee shall not have been delivered to the Trustee within 30 days after the giving of such notice of removal, the Trustee being removed may petition, at the expense of the Company, any court of competent jurisdiction for the appointment of a successor trustee with respect to the Securities of such series.  Such court may thereupon after such notice, if any, as it may deem proper and prescribe, remove the Trustee and appoint a successor trustee.

 

(c)                  The holders of a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of any series at the time Outstanding may at any time remove the Trustee with respect to such series by so notifying the Trustee and the Company and may appoint a successor Trustee for such series with the consent of the Company.  If an instrument of acceptance by a successor trustee shall not have been delivered to the Trustee within 30 days after the giving of such notice of removal, the Trustee being removed may petition, at the expense of the Company, any court of competent jurisdiction for the appointment of a successor trustee with respect to the Securities of such series.

 

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(d)                  Any resignation or removal of the Trustee and appointment of a successor trustee with respect to the Securities of a series pursuant to any of the provisions of this Section shall become effective upon acceptance of appointment by the successor trustee as provided in Section 7.11.

 

(e)                  Any successor trustee appointed pursuant to this Section may be appointed with respect to the Securities of one or more series or all of such series, and at any time there shall be only one Trustee with respect to the Securities of any particular series.

 

Section 7.11              Acceptance of Appointment by Successor.

 

(a)                  In case of the appointment hereunder of a successor trustee with respect to all Securities, every such successor trustee so appointed shall execute, acknowledge and deliver to the Company and to the retiring Trustee an instrument accepting such appointment, and thereupon the resignation or removal of the retiring Trustee shall become effective and such successor trustee, without any further act, deed or conveyance, shall become vested with all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee; but, on the request of the Company or the successor trustee, such retiring Trustee shall, upon payment of its charges, execute and deliver an instrument transferring to such successor trustee all the rights, powers, and trusts of the retiring Trustee and shall duly assign, transfer and deliver to such successor trustee all property and money held by such retiring Trustee hereunder.

 

(b)                  In case of the appointment hereunder of a successor trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more (but not all) series, the Company, the retiring Trustee and each successor trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more series shall execute and deliver an indenture supplemental hereto wherein each successor trustee shall accept such appointment and which (1) shall contain such provisions as shall be necessary or desirable to transfer and confirm to, and to vest in, each successor trustee all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor trustee relates, (2) shall contain such provisions as shall be deemed necessary or desirable to confirm that all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee with respect to the Securities of that or those series as to which the retiring Trustee is not retiring shall continue to be vested in the retiring Trustee, and (3) shall add to or change any of the provisions of this Indenture as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts hereunder by more than one Trustee, it being understood that nothing herein or in such supplemental indenture shall constitute such Trustees co-trustees of the same trust, that each such Trustee shall be trustee of a trust or trusts hereunder separate and apart from any trust or trusts hereunder administered by any other such Trustee and that no Trustee shall be responsible for any act or failure to act on the part of any other Trustee hereunder; and upon the execution and delivery of such supplemental indenture the resignation or removal of the retiring Trustee shall become effective to the extent provided therein, such retiring Trustee shall with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor trustee relates have no further responsibility for the exercise of rights and powers or for the performance of the duties and obligations vested in the Trustee under this Indenture, and each such successor trustee, without any further act, deed or conveyance, shall become vested with all the rights, powers, trusts and duties of the retiring Trustee with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor trustee relates; but, on request of the Company or any successor trustee, such retiring Trustee shall duly assign, transfer and deliver to such successor trustee, to the extent contemplated by such supplemental indenture, the property and money held by such retiring Trustee hereunder with respect to the Securities of that or those series to which the appointment of such successor trustee relates.

 

(c)                  Upon request of any such successor trustee, the Company shall execute any and all instruments for more fully and certainly vesting in and confirming to such successor trustee all such rights, powers and trusts referred to in paragraph (a) or (b) of this Section, as the case may be.

 

(d)                  No successor trustee shall accept its appointment unless at the time of such acceptance such successor trustee shall be qualified and eligible under this Article.

 

(e)                  Upon acceptance of appointment by a successor trustee as provided in this Section, the Company shall transmit notice of the succession of such trustee hereunder by mail, first class postage prepaid, to the Securityholders, as their names and addresses appear upon the Security Register. If the Company fails to transmit such notice within ten days after acceptance of appointment by the successor trustee, the successor trustee shall cause such notice to be transmitted at the expense of the Company.

 

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Section 7.12              Merger, Conversion, Consolidation or Succession to Business.

 

Any corporation into which the Trustee may be merged or converted or with which it may be consolidated, or any corporation resulting from any merger, conversion or consolidation to which the Trustee shall be a party, or any corporation succeeding to all or substantially all of the corporate trust business of the Trustee, shall be the successor of the Trustee hereunder, provided that such corporation shall be qualified under the provisions of Section 7.08 and eligible under the provisions of Section 7.09, without the execution or filing of any paper or any further act on the part of any of the parties hereto, anything herein to the contrary notwithstanding. In case any Securities shall have been authenticated, but not delivered, by the Trustee then in office, any successor by merger, conversion or consolidation to such authenticating Trustee may adopt such authentication and deliver the Securities so authenticated with the same effect as if such successor Trustee had itself authenticated such Securities.

 

Section 7.13              Preferential Collection of Claims Against the Company.

 

The Trustee shall comply with Section 311(a) of the Trust Indenture Act, excluding any creditor relationship described in Section 311(b) of the Trust Indenture Act. A Trustee who has resigned or been removed shall be subject to Section 311(a) of the Trust Indenture Act to the extent included therein.

 

ARTICLE VIII

 

CONCERNING THE SECURITYHOLDERS

 

Section 8.01               Evidence of Action by Securityholders.

 

Whenever in this Indenture it is provided that the holders of a majority or specified percentage in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of a particular series may take any action (including the making of any demand or request, the giving of any notice, consent or waiver or the taking of any other action), the fact that at the time of taking any such action the holders of such majority or specified percentage of that series have joined therein may be evidenced by any instrument or any number of instruments of similar tenor executed by such holders of Securities of that series in Person or by agent or proxy appointed in writing.

 

If the Company shall solicit from the Securityholders of any series any request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action, the Company may, at its option, as evidenced by an Officers’ Certificate, fix in advance a record date for such series for the determination of Securityholders entitled to give such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action, but the Company shall have no obligation to do so. If such a record date is fixed, such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action may be given before or after the record date, but only the Securityholders of record at the close of business on the record date shall be deemed to be Securityholders for the purposes of determining whether Securityholders of the requisite proportion of Outstanding Securities of that series have authorized or agreed or consented to such request, demand, authorization, direction, notice, consent, waiver or other action, and for that purpose the Outstanding Securities of that series shall be computed as of the record date; provided, however, that no such authorization, agreement or consent by such Securityholders on the record date shall be deemed effective unless it shall become effective pursuant to the provisions of this Indenture not later than six months after the record date.

 

Section 8.02               Proof of Execution by Securityholders.

 

Subject to the provisions of Section 7.01, proof of the execution of any instrument by a Securityholder (such proof will not require notarization) or his agent or proxy and proof of the holding by any Person of any of the Securities shall be sufficient if made in the following manner:

 

(a)                  The fact and date of the execution by any such Person of any instrument may be proved in any reasonable manner acceptable to the Trustee.

 

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(b)                  The ownership of Securities shall be proved by the Security Register of such Securities or by a certificate of the Security Registrar thereof.

 

(c)                  The Trustee may require such additional proof of any matter referred to in this Section as it shall deem necessary.

 

Section 8.03               Who May be Deemed Owners.

 

Prior to the due presentment for registration of transfer of any Security, the Company, the Trustee, any Paying Agent and any Security Registrar may deem and treat the Person in whose name such Security shall be registered upon the books of the Company as the absolute owner of such Security (whether or not such Security shall be overdue and notwithstanding any notice of ownership or writing thereon made by anyone other than the Security Registrar) for the purpose of receiving payment of or on account of the principal of, premium, if any, and (subject to Section 2.03) interest on such Security and for all other purposes; and neither the Company nor the Trustee nor any Paying Agent nor any Security Registrar shall be affected by any notice to the contrary.

 

Section 8.04               Certain Securities Owned by Company Disregarded.

 

In determining whether the holders of the requisite aggregate principal amount of Securities of a particular series have concurred in any direction, consent of waiver under this Indenture, the Securities of that series that are owned by the Company or any other obligor on the Securities of that series or by any Person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under common control with the Company or any other obligor on the Securities of that series shall be disregarded and deemed not to be Outstanding for the purpose of any such determination, except that for the purpose of determining whether the Trustee shall be protected in relying on any such direction, consent or waiver, only Securities of such series that a Responsible Officer of the Trustee actually knows are so owned shall be so disregarded. The Securities so owned that have been pledged in good faith may be regarded as Outstanding for the purposes of this Section, if the pledgee shall establish to the satisfaction of the Trustee the pledgee’s right so to act with respect to such Securities and that the pledgee is not a Person directly or indirectly controlling or controlled by or under direct or indirect common control with the Company or any such other obligor. In case of a dispute as to such right, any decision by the Trustee taken upon the advice of counsel shall be full protection to the Trustee.

 

Section 8.05               Actions Binding on Future Securityholders.

 

At any time prior to (but not after) the evidencing to the Trustee, as provided in Section 8.01, of the taking of any action by the holders of the majority or percentage in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of a particular series specified in this Indenture in connection with such action, any holder of a Security of that series that is shown by the evidence to be included in the Securities the holders of which have consented to such action may, by filing written notice with the Trustee, and upon proof of holding as provided in Section 8.02, revoke such action so far as concerns such Security. Except as aforesaid any such action taken by the holder of any Security shall be conclusive and binding upon such holder and upon all future holders and owners of such Security, and of any Security issued in exchange therefor, on registration of transfer thereof or in place thereof, irrespective of whether or not any notation in regard thereto is made upon such Security. Any action taken by the holders of the majority or percentage in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of a particular series specified in this Indenture in connection with such action shall be conclusively binding upon the Company, the Trustee and the holders of all the Securities of that series.

 

ARTICLE IX

 

SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES

 

Section 9.01               Supplemental Indentures Without the Consent of Securityholders.

 

In addition to any supplemental indenture otherwise authorized by this Indenture, the Company and the Trustee may from time to time and at any time enter into an indenture or indentures supplemental hereto (which shall conform to the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act as then in effect), without the consent of the Securityholders, for one or more of the following purposes:

 

(1)                  to cure any ambiguity, defect, or inconsistency herein, in the Securities of any series;

 

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(2)                  to comply with Article X;

 

(3)                  to provide for uncertificated Securities in addition to or in place of certificated Securities;

 

(4)                  to add to the covenants of the Company for the benefit of the holders of all or any series of Securities (and if such covenants are to be for the benefit of less than all series of Securities, stating that such covenants are expressly being included solely for the benefit of such series) or to surrender any right or power herein conferred upon the Company;

 

(5)                  to add to, delete from, or revise the conditions, limitations, and restrictions on the authorized amount, terms, or purposes of issue, authentication, and delivery of Securities, as herein set forth;

 

(6)                  to make any change that does not adversely affect the rights of any Securityholder in any material respect;

 

(7)                  to provide for the issuance of and establish the form and terms and conditions of the Securities of any series as provided in Section 2.01, to establish the form of any certifications required to be furnished pursuant to the terms of this Indenture or any series of Securities, or to add to the rights of the holders of any series of Securities;

 

(8)                  to add any additional Events of Default for the benefit of the holders of all or any series of Securities (and if such additional Events of Default are to be for the benefit of less than all series of Securities, stating that such additional Events of Default are expressly being included solely for the benefit of such series);

 

(9)                  to add to or change any of the provisions of this Indenture to such extent as shall be necessary to permit or facilitate the issuance of Securities in uncertificated form;

 

(10)                to add to, change or eliminate any of the provisions of this Indenture in respect of one or more series of Securities, provided that any such addition, change or elimination (A) shall neither (i) apply to any Security of any series created prior to the execution of such supplemental indenture and entitled to the benefit of such provision nor (ii) modify the rights of the holder of any such Security with respect to such provision or (B) shall become effective only when there is no such Security Outstanding;

 

(11)                to secure the Securities; or

 

(12)                to evidence and provide for the acceptance of appointment hereunder by a successor Trustee with respect to the Securities of one or more series and to add to or change any of the provisions of this Indenture as shall be necessary to provide for or facilitate the administration of the trusts hereunder by more than one Trustee, pursuant to the requirements of Section 7.11.

 

The Trustee is hereby authorized to join with the Company in the execution of any such supplemental indenture, and to make any further appropriate agreements and stipulations that may be therein contained, but the Trustee shall not be obligated to enter into any such supplemental indenture that affects the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under this Indenture or otherwise.

 

Any supplemental indenture authorized by the provisions of this Section may be executed by the Company and the Trustee without the consent of the holders of any of the Securities at the time Outstanding, notwithstanding any of the provisions of Section 9.02.

 

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Section 9.02               Supplemental Indentures with Consent of Securityholders.

 

With the consent (evidenced as provided in Section 8.01) of the holders of not less than a majority in aggregate principal amount of the Securities of each series affected by such supplemental indenture or indentures at the time Outstanding, the Company, when authorized by Board Resolutions, and the Trustee may from time to time and at any time enter into an indenture or indentures supplemental hereto (which shall conform to the provisions of the Trust Indenture Act as then in effect) for the purpose of adding any provisions to or changing in any manner or eliminating any of the provisions of this Indenture or of any supplemental indenture or of modifying in any manner not covered by Section 9.01 the rights of the holders of the Securities of such series under this Indenture; provided, however, that no such supplemental indenture shall, without the consent of the holders of each Security then Outstanding and affected thereby, (i) extend the fixed maturity of any Securities of any series, or reduce the principal amount thereof, or reduce the rate or extend the time of payment of interest thereon, or reduce any premium payable upon the redemption thereof; (ii) reduce the amount of principal of an Original Issue Discount Security or any other Security payable upon acceleration of the maturity thereof pursuant to Section 6.01(b); (iii) change the currency in which any Security or any premium or interest is payable; (iv) impair the right to institute suit for any payment on or with respect to any Security; (v) reduce the percentage in principal amount of outstanding Securities of any series, the consent of whose holders is required for modification or amendment of this Indenture or for waiver of compliance with certain provisions of this Indenture or for waiver of certain defaults; (vi) reduce the requirements contained in this Indenture for quorum or voting; or (vii) modify any of the above provisions.

 

It shall not be necessary for the consent of the Securityholders of any series affected thereby under this Section to approve the particular form of any proposed supplemental indenture, but it shall be sufficient if such consent shall approve the substance thereof.

 

Section 9.03               Effect of Supplemental Indentures.

 

Upon the execution of any supplemental indenture pursuant to the provisions of this Article or of Article X, this Indenture shall, with respect to such series, be and be deemed to be modified and amended in accordance therewith and the respective rights, limitations of rights, obligations, duties and immunities under this Indenture of the Trustee, the Company and the holders of Securities of the series affected thereby shall thereafter be determined, exercised and enforced hereunder subject in all respects to such modifications and amendments, and all the terms and conditions of any such supplemental indenture shall be and be deemed to be part of the terms and conditions of this Indenture for any and all purposes.

 

Section 9.04               Securities Affected by Supplemental Indentures.

 

Securities of any series, affected by a supplemental indenture, authenticated and delivered after the execution of such supplemental indenture pursuant to the provisions of this Article or of Article X, may bear a notation in form approved by the Company, provided such form meets the requirements of any exchange upon which such series may be listed, as to any matter provided for in such supplemental indenture. If the Company shall so determine, new Securities of that series so modified as to conform, in the opinion of the Board of Directors of the Company, to any modification of this Indenture contained in any such supplemental indenture may be prepared by the Company, authenticated by the Trustee and delivered in exchange for the Securities of that series then Outstanding.

 

Section 9.05               Execution of Supplemental Indentures.

 

Upon the request of the Company, accompanied by its Board Resolutions authorizing the execution of any such supplemental indenture, and upon the filing with the Trustee of evidence of the consent of Securityholders required to consent thereto as aforesaid, the Trustee shall join with the Company in the execution of such supplemental indenture unless such supplemental indenture affects the Trustee’s own rights, duties or immunities under this Indenture or otherwise, in which case the Trustee may, in its discretion, but shall not be obligated to, enter into such supplemental indenture. The Trustee, subject to the provisions of Section 7.01, shall be provided with an Opinion of Counsel as conclusive evidence that any supplemental indenture executed pursuant to this Article is authorized or permitted by, and conforms to, the terms of this Article and that it is proper for the Trustee under the provisions of this Article to join in the execution thereof; provided, however, that such Opinion of Counsel need not be provided in connection with the execution of a supplemental indenture that establishes the terms of a series of Securities pursuant to Section 2.01 hereof.

 

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Promptly after the execution by the Company and the Trustee of any supplemental indenture pursuant to the provisions of this Section, the Trustee shall transmit by mail, first class postage prepaid, a notice, setting forth in general terms the substance of such supplemental indenture, to the Securityholders of all series affected thereby as their names and addresses appear upon the Security Register. Any failure of the Trustee to mail such notice, or any defect therein, shall not, however, in any way impair or affect the validity of any such supplemental indenture.

 

ARTICLE X

 

CONSOLIDATION, MERGER, CONVEYANCE,
TRANSFER OR LEASE

 

Section 10.01               When the Company May Consolidate, Merge, Etc.

 

The Company may not (a) merge with or into or consolidate with, or (b) sell, assign, transfer, lease or convey all or substantially all of its properties and assets to, any Person other than, with respect to this clause (b), a direct or indirect wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company, and no Person shall (x) merge with or into or consolidate with the Company, or (y) except for any direct or indirect wholly-owned subsidiary of the Company, sell, assign, transfer, lease or convey all or substantially all of its properties and assets to the Company, unless:

 

(a)                  the Company is the surviving corporation or the Person formed by or surviving such merger or consolidation or to which such sale, assignment, transfer, lease or conveyance shall have been made (the “Successor”), if other than the Company, shall expressly assume by an indenture supplemental hereto, executed and delivered to the Trustee, in form satisfactory to the Trustee, all the obligations of the Company under the Securities and this Indenture;

 

(b)                  immediately after giving effect to such transaction, no default or Event of Default shall have occurred and be continuing; and

 

(c)                  the Company delivers to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that such supplemental indenture comply with this Indenture.

 

The Successor will be the successor to the Company, and will be substituted for, and may exercise every right and power and become the obligor on the Securities with the same effect as if the Successor had been named as the Company herein but, in the case of a sale, assignment, transfer, lease or conveyance of all or substantially all of the properties and assets of the Company, the predecessor Company will not be released from its obligations to pay the principal of, premium, if any, and interest on the Securities.

 

ARTICLE XI

 

SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE

 

Section 11.01               Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture.

 

If at any time: (a) the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee for cancellation all Securities of a series theretofore authenticated (other than any Securities that shall have been destroyed, lost or stolen and that shall have been replaced or paid as provided in Section 2.07) and Securities for whose payment money or Governmental Obligations have theretofore been deposited in trust or segregated and held in trust by the Company (and thereupon repaid to the Company or discharged from such trust, as provided in Section 11.05); or (b) all such Securities of a particular series not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation shall have become due and payable, or are by their terms to become due and payable within one year or are to be called for redemption within one year under arrangements satisfactory to the Trustee for the giving of notice of redemption, and the Company shall deposit or cause to be deposited with the Trustee as trust funds the entire amount in moneys or Governmental Obligations sufficient or a combination thereof, sufficient in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Trustee, to pay at maturity or upon redemption all Securities of that series not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, including principal, and premium, if any, and interest due or to become due to such date of maturity or date fixed for redemption, as the case may be, and if the Company shall also pay or cause to be paid all other sums payable hereunder with respect to such series by the Company then this Indenture shall thereupon cease to be of further effect with respect to such series except for the provisions of Sections 2.03, 2.05, 2.07, 4.01, 4.02, 4.03 and 7.10, that shall survive until the date of maturity or redemption date, as the case may be, and Sections 7.06 and 11.05, that shall survive to such date and thereafter, and the Trustee, on demand of the Company and at the cost and expense of the Company shall execute proper instruments acknowledging satisfaction of and discharging this Indenture with respect to such series.

 

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Section 11.02               Discharge of Obligations.

 

If at any time all such Securities of a particular series not heretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation or that have not become due and payable as described in Section 11.01 shall have been paid by the Company by depositing irrevocably with the Trustee as trust funds money in U.S. dollars sufficient or an amount of non-callable Governmental Obligations, the principal of and interest on which when due, will be sufficient or a combination thereof, sufficient in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent accountants expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Trustee, to pay at maturity or upon redemption all such Securities of that series not theretofore delivered to the Trustee for cancellation, including principal, and premium, if any, and interest due or to become due to such date of maturity or date fixed for redemption, as the case may be, and if the Company shall also pay or cause to be paid all other sums payable hereunder by the Company with respect to such series, then after the date such moneys or Governmental Obligations, as the case may be, are deposited with the Trustee the obligations of the Company under this Indenture with respect to such series shall cease to be of further effect except for the provisions of Sections 2.03, 2.05, 2.07, 4.01, 4.02, 4.03, 7.06, 7.10 and 11.05 hereof that shall survive until such Securities shall mature and be paid. Thereafter, Sections 7.06 and 11.05 shall survive such satisfaction and discharge.

 

Section 11.03               Deposited Moneys to be Held in Trust.

 

All moneys or Governmental Obligations deposited with the Trustee pursuant to Sections 11.01 or 11.02 shall be held in trust and shall be available for payment as due, either directly or through any Paying Agent (including the Company acting as its own Paying Agent), to the holders of the particular series of Securities for the payment or redemption of which such moneys or Governmental Obligations have been deposited with the Trustee.

 

Section 11.04               Payment of Moneys Held by Paying Agents.

 

In connection with the satisfaction and discharge of this Indenture all moneys or Governmental Obligations then held by any Paying Agent under the provisions of this Indenture shall, upon demand of the Company, be paid to the Trustee and thereupon such Paying Agent shall be released from all further liability with respect to such moneys or Governmental Obligations.

 

Section 11.05               Repayment to Company.

 

Any moneys or Governmental Obligations deposited with any Paying Agent or the Trustee, or then held by the Company, in trust for payment of principal of or premium or interest on the Securities of a particular series that are not applied but remain unclaimed by the holders of such Securities for at least two years after the date upon which the principal of, and premium, if any, or interest on such Securities shall have respectively become due and payable, shall be repaid to the Company on May 31 of each year or (if then held by the Company) shall be discharged from such trust; and thereupon the Paying Agent and the Trustee shall be released from all further liability with respect to such moneys or Governmental Obligations, and the holder of any of the Securities entitled to receive such payment shall thereafter, as an unsecured general creditor, look only to the Company for the payment thereof.

 

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ARTICLE XII

 

IMMUNITY OF INCORPORATORS, STOCKHOLDERS, OFFICERS
AND DIRECTORS

 

Section 12.01               No Recourse.

 

No recourse under or upon any obligation, covenant or agreement of this Indenture, or of any Security, or for any claim based thereon or otherwise in respect thereof, shall be had against any incorporator, stockholder, officer or director, past, present or future as such, of the Company or of any predecessor or successor corporation, either directly or through the Company or any such predecessor or successor corporation, whether by virtue of any constitution, statute or rule of law, or by the enforcement of any assessment or penalty or otherwise; it being expressly understood that this Indenture and the obligations issued hereunder are solely corporate obligations, and that no such personal liability whatever shall attach to, or is or shall be incurred by, the incorporators, stockholders, officers or directors as such, of the Company or of any predecessor or successor corporation, or any of them, because of the creation of the indebtedness hereby authorized, or under or by reason of the obligations, covenants or agreements contained in this Indenture or in any of the Securities or implied therefrom; and that any and all such personal liability of every name and nature, either at common law or in equity or by constitution or statute, of, and any and all such rights and claims against, every such incorporator, stockholder, officer or director as such, because of the creation of the indebtedness hereby authorized, or under or by reason of the obligations, covenants or agreements contained in this Indenture or in any of the Securities or implied therefrom, are hereby expressly waived and released as a condition of, and as a consideration for, the execution of this Indenture and the issuance of such Securities.

 

ARTICLE XIII

 

DEFEASANCE AND COVENANT DEFEASANCE

 

Section 13.01               Company’s Option to Effect Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance.

 

The Company may elect, at its option at any time, to have Section 13.02 or Section 13.03 applied to any Securities or any series of Securities, as the case may be, designated pursuant to Section 2.01 as being defeasible pursuant to such Sections 13.02 or 13.03, in accordance with any applicable requirements provided pursuant to Section 2.01 and upon compliance with the conditions set forth below in this Article. Any such election shall be evidenced by a Board Resolution or in another manner specified as contemplated by Section 2.01 for such Securities.

 

Section 13.02               Defeasance and Discharge.

 

Upon the Company’s exercise of its option (if any) to have this Section applied to any Securities or any series of Securities, as the case may be, the Company shall be deemed to have been discharged from its obligations with respect to such Securities as provided in this Section on and after the date the conditions set forth in Section 13.04 are satisfied (hereinafter called “Defeasance”). For this purpose, such Defeasance means that the Company shall be deemed to have paid and discharged the entire indebtedness represented by such Securities and to have satisfied all its other obligations under such Securities and this Indenture insofar as such Securities are concerned (and the Trustee, at the expense of the Company, shall execute proper instruments acknowledging the same), subject to the following which shall survive until otherwise terminated or discharged hereunder: (1) the rights of holders of such Securities to receive, solely from the trust fund described in Section 13.04 and as more fully set forth in such Section, payments in respect of the principal of and any premium and interest on such Securities when payments are due, (2) the Company’s obligations with respect to such Securities under Sections 2.05, 2.06, 2.07, 4.01, 4.02 and 4.03, (3) the rights, powers, trusts, duties and immunities of the Trustee hereunder and (4) this Article. Subject to compliance with this Article, the Company may exercise its option (if any) to have this Section applied to any Securities notwithstanding the prior exercise of its option (if any) to have Section 13.03 applied to such Securities.

 

Section 13.03               Covenant Defeasance.

 

Upon the Company’s exercise of its option (if any) to have this Section applied to any Securities or any series of Securities, as the case may be, (1) the Company shall be released from its obligations under Article X, Sections 4.06 and 4.07 and any covenants provided pursuant to Sections 2.01(a)(16), 9.01(4) or 9.01(7) for the benefit of the holders of such Securities and (2) the occurrence of any event specified in Sections 6.01(a)(3) (with respect to any of Article X, Sections 4.06 and 4.07 and any such covenants provided pursuant to Sections 2.01(a)(16), 9.01(4) or 9.01(7)), Section 6.01(a)(6) and  6.01(a)(7) shall be deemed not to be or result in an Event of Default, in each case with respect to such Securities as provided in this Section on and after the date the conditions set forth in Section 13.04 are satisfied (hereinafter called “Covenant Defeasance”). For this purpose, such Covenant Defeasance means that, with respect to such Securities, the Company may omit to comply with and shall have no liability in respect of any term, condition or limitation set forth in any such specified Section (to the extent so specified in the case of Section 6.01(a)(3)), whether directly or indirectly by reason of any reference elsewhere herein to any such Section or by reason of any reference in any such Section to any other provision herein or in any other document, but the remainder of this Indenture and such Securities shall be unaffected thereby.

 

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Section 13.04               Conditions to Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance.

 

The following shall be the conditions to the application of Section 13.02 or Section 13.03 to any Securities or any series of Securities, as the case may be:

 

(1)                  The Company shall irrevocably have deposited or caused to be deposited with the Trustee (or another trustee which satisfies the requirements contemplated by Section 7.09 and agrees to comply with the provisions of this Article applicable to it) as trust funds in trust for the purpose of making the following payments, specifically pledged as security for, and dedicated solely to, the benefits of the holders of such Securities, (A) money in an amount, or (B) Government Obligations which through the scheduled payment of principal and interest in respect thereof in accordance with their terms will provide, not later than one day before the due date of any payment, money in an amount, or (C) a combination thereof, in each case sufficient, in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Trustee, to pay and discharge, and which shall be applied by the Trustee (or any such other qualifying trustee) to pay and discharge, the principal of and any premium and interest on such Securities on the respective Stated Maturities, in accordance with the terms of this Indenture and such Securities.

 

(2)                  In the event of an election to have Section 13.02 apply to any Securities or any series of Securities, as the case may be, the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Opinion of Counsel stating that (A) the Company has received from, or there has been published by, the Internal Revenue Service a ruling or (B) since the date of this Indenture, there has been a change in the applicable federal income tax law, in either case (A) or (B) to the effect that, and based thereon such opinion shall confirm that, the holders of such Securities will not recognize gain or loss for federal income tax purposes as a result of the deposit, Defeasance and discharge to be effected with respect to such Securities and will be subject to federal income tax on the same amount, in the same manner and at the same times as would be the case if such deposit, Defeasance and discharge were not to occur.

 

(3)                  In the event of an election to have Section 13.03 apply to any Securities or any series of Securities, as the case may be, the Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Opinion of Counsel to the effect that the holders of such Securities will not recognize gain or loss for federal income tax purposes as a result of the deposit and Covenant Defeasance to be effected with respect to such Securities and will be subject to federal income tax on the same amount, in the same manner and at the same times as would be the case if such deposit and Covenant Defeasance were not to occur.

 

(4)                  The Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate to the effect that it has been informed by the relevant securities exchange(s) that neither such Securities nor any other Securities of the same series, if then listed on any securities exchange, will be delisted as a result of such deposit.

 

(5)                  No event which is, or after notice or lapse of time or both would become, an Event of Default with respect to such Securities or any other Securities shall have occurred and be continuing at the time of such deposit or, with regard to any such event specified in Sections 6.01(a)(5) and 6.01(a)(6), at any time on or prior to the 90th day after the date of such deposit (it being understood that this condition shall not be deemed satisfied until after such 90th day).

 

(6)                  Such Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance shall not result in a breach or violation of, or constitute a default under, any indenture or other agreement or instrument for borrowed money, pursuant to which in excess of $100,000,000 principal amount is then outstanding, to which the Company is a party or by which it is bound.

 

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(7)                  Such Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance shall not result in the trust arising from such deposit constituting an investment company within the meaning of the Investment Company Act unless such trust shall be registered under such Act or exempt from registration thereunder.

 

(8)                  The Company shall have delivered to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate and an Opinion of Counsel, each stating that all conditions precedent with respect to such Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance have been complied with.

 

Section 13.05               Deposited Money and Government Obligations to be Held in Trust; Miscellaneous Provisions.

 

Subject to the provisions of Section 4.03(d), all money and Government Obligations (including the proceeds thereof) deposited with the Trustee or other qualifying trustee (solely for purposes of this Section and Section 13.06, the Trustee and any such other trustee are referred to collectively as the “Trustee”) pursuant to Section 13.04 in respect of any Securities shall be held in trust and applied by the Trustee, in accordance with the provisions of such Securities and this Indenture, to the payment, either directly or through any such Paying Agent (including the Company acting as its own Paying Agent) as the Trustee may determine, to the holders of such Securities, of all sums due and to become due thereon in respect of principal and any premium and interest, but money so held in trust need not be segregated from other funds except to the extent required by law.

 

The Company shall pay and indemnify the Trustee against any tax, fee or other charge imposed on or assessed against the Government Obligations deposited pursuant to Section 13.04 or the principal and interest received in respect thereof other than any such tax, fee or other charge which by law is for the account of the holders of Outstanding Securities.

 

Anything in this Article to the contrary notwithstanding, the Trustee shall deliver or pay to the Company from time to time upon request of the Company any money or Government Obligations held by it as provided in Section 13.04 with respect to any Securities which, in the opinion of a nationally recognized firm of independent public accountants expressed in a written certification thereof delivered to the Trustee, are in excess of the amount thereof which would then be required to be deposited to effect the Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance, as the case may be, with respect to such Securities.

 

Section 13.06               Reinstatement.

 

If the Trustee or the Paying Agent is unable to apply any money in accordance with this Article with respect to any Securities by reason of any order or judgment of any court or governmental authority enjoining, restraining or otherwise prohibiting such application, then the obligations under this Indenture and such Securities from which the Company has been discharged or released pursuant to Sections 13.02 or 13.03 shall be revived and reinstated as though no deposit had occurred pursuant to this Article with respect to such Securities, until such time as the Trustee or Paying Agent is permitted to apply all money held in trust pursuant to Section 13.05 with respect to such Securities in accordance with this Article; provided, however, that if the Company makes any payment of principal of or any premium or interest on any such Security following such reinstatement of its obligations, the Company shall be subrogated to the rights (if any) of the holders of such Securities to receive such payment from the money so held in trust.

 

ARTICLE XIV

 

MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

 

Section 14.01               Effect on Successors and Assigns.

 

All the covenants, stipulations, promises and agreements in this Indenture contained by or on behalf of the Company shall bind their respective successors and assigns, whether so expressed or not.

 

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Section 14.02               Actions by Successor.

 

Any act or proceeding by any provision of this Indenture authorized or required to be done or performed by any board, committee or officer of the Company shall and may be done and performed with like force and effect by the corresponding board, committee or officer of any corporation that shall at the time be the lawful sole successor of the Company.

 

Section 14.03               Surrender of Company Powers.

 

The Company by instrument in writing executed by authority of 2/3 (two-thirds) of its Board of Directors and delivered to the Trustee may surrender any of the powers reserved to the Company, and thereupon such power so surrendered shall terminate both as to the Company and as to any successor corporation.

 

Section 14.04               Notices.

 

Except as otherwise expressly provided herein any notice or demand that by any provision of this Indenture is required or permitted to be given or served by the Trustee or by the holders of Securities to or on the Company may be given or served by being deposited first class postage prepaid in a post-office letterbox addressed (until another address is filed in writing by the Company with the Trustee), as follows: DPW Holdings, Inc., 201 Shipyard Way, Suite E, Newport Beach 92663, Attention: Chief Executive Officer, or by facsimile to fax number (949) 444-5464, with copies of any notice of an Event of Default to the attention of the General Counsel at the same address.  Any notice, election, request or demand by the Company or any Securityholder to or upon the Trustee shall be deemed to have been sufficiently given or made, for all purposes, if given or made in writing at the Corporate Trust Office of the Trustee.

 

The Trustee shall have the right to accept and act upon instructions, including funds transfer instructions (“Instructions”) given pursuant to this Indenture and delivered using Electronic Means; provided, however, that the Company shall provide to the Trustee an incumbency certificate listing officers with the authority to provide such Instructions (“Authorized Officers”) and containing direct dial telephone numbers and specimen signatures of such Authorized Officers, which incumbency certificate shall be amended by the Company whenever a person is to be added or deleted from the listing. If the Company elects to give the Trustee Instructions using Electronic Means and the Trustee in its discretion elects to act upon such Instructions, the Trustee’s understanding of such Instructions shall be deemed controlling. The Company understands and agrees that the Trustee cannot determine the identity of the actual sender of such Instructions and that the Trustee shall conclusively presume that directions that purport to have been sent by an Authorized Officer listed on the incumbency certificate provided to the Trustee have been sent by such Authorized Officer.  The Company shall be responsible for ensuring that only Authorized Officers transmit such Instructions to the Trustee and that the Company and all Authorized Officers are solely responsible to safeguard the use and confidentiality of applicable user and authorization codes, passwords and/or authentication keys upon receipt by the Company.  The Trustee shall not be liable for any losses, costs or expenses arising directly or indirectly from the Trustee’s reliance upon and compliance with such Instructions notwithstanding such directions conflict or are inconsistent with a subsequent written instruction. The Company agrees: (i) to assume all risks arising out of the use of Electronic Means to submit Instructions to the Trustee, including without limitation the risk of the Trustee acting on unauthorized Instructions, and the risk of interception and misuse by third parties; (ii) that it is fully informed of the protections and risks associated with the various methods of transmitting Instructions to the Trustee and that there may be more secure methods of transmitting Instructions than the method(s) selected by the Company; (iii) that the security procedures (if any) to be followed in connection with its transmission of Instructions provide to it a commercially reasonable degree of protection in light of its particular needs and circumstances; and (iv) to notify the Trustee immediately upon learning of any compromise or unauthorized use of the security procedures.

 

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Section 14.05               Governing Law.

 

THIS INDENTURE AND THE SECURITIES SHALL BE GOVERNED BY AND CONSTRUED IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE LAWS OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK, BUT WITHOUT GIVING EFFECT TO APPLICABLE PRINCIPLES OF CONFLICTS OF LAW TO THE EXTENT THAT SUCH PRINCIPLES ARE NOT MANDATORILY APPLICABLE BY STATUTE AND THE APPLICATION OF THE LAW OF ANOTHER JURISDICTION WOULD BE REQUIRED THEREBY.  THE COMPANY HEREBY IRREVOCABLY SUBMITS TO THE JURISDICTION OF ANY NEW YORK STATE COURT SITTING IN THE BOROUGH OF MANHATTAN IN THE CITY OF NEW YORK OR ANY FEDERAL COURT SITTING IN THE BOROUGH OF MANHATTAN IN THE CITY OF NEW YORK IN RESPECT OF ANY SUIT, ACTION OR PROCEEDING ARISING OUT OF OR RELATING TO THIS INDENTURE AND THE SECURITIES AND IRREVOCABLY ACCEPTS FOR ITSELF AND IN RESPECT OF ITS PROPERTY, GENERALLY AND UNCONDITIONALLY, JURISDICTION OF THE AFORESAID COURTS.  THE COMPANY IRREVOCABLY WAIVES, TO THE FULLEST EXTENT THAT IT MAY EFFECTIVELY DO SO UNDER APPLICABLE LAW, TRIAL BY JURY AND ANY OBJECTION WHICH IT MAY NOW OR HEREAFTER HAVE TO THE LAYING OF THE VENUE OF ANY SUCH SUIT, ACTION OR PROCEEDING BROUGHT IN ANY SUCH COURT AND ANY CLAIM THAT ANY SUCH SUIT, ACTION OR PROCEEDING BROUGHT IN ANY SUCH COURT HAS BEEN BROUGHT IN AN INCONVENIENT FORUM.  NOTHING HEREIN SHALL AFFECT THE RIGHT OF THE TRUSTEE OR ANY HOLDER OF THE SECURITIES TO SERVE PROCESS IN ANY OTHER MANNER PERMITTED BY LAW OR TO COMMENCE LEGAL PROCEEDINGS OR OTHERWISE PROCEED AGAINST THE COMPANY IN ANY OTHER JURISDICTION.

 

Section 14.06               Treatment of Securities as Debt.

 

It is intended that the Securities will be treated as indebtedness and not as equity for federal income tax purposes. The provisions of this Indenture shall be interpreted to further this intention.

 

Section 14.07               Compliance Certificates and Opinions.

 

(a)                  Upon any application or demand by the Company to the Trustee to take any action under any of the provisions of this Indenture, the Company, shall furnish to the Trustee an Officers’ Certificate stating that all conditions precedent provided for in this Indenture relating to the proposed action have been complied with and an Opinion of Counsel stating that in the opinion of such counsel all such conditions precedent have been complied with, except that in the case of any such application or demand as to which the furnishing of such documents is specifically required by any provision of this Indenture relating to such particular application or demand, no additional certificate or opinion need be furnished.

 

(b)                  Each certificate or opinion provided for in this Indenture and delivered to the Trustee with respect to compliance with a condition or covenant in this Indenture shall include (1) a statement that the Person making such certificate or opinion has read such covenant or condition; (2) a brief statement as to the nature and scope of the examination or investigation upon which the statements or opinions contained in such certificate or opinion are based; (3) a statement that, in the opinion of such Person, he has made such examination or investigation as is necessary to enable him to express an informed opinion as to whether or not such covenant or condition has been complied with; and (4) a statement as to whether or not, in the opinion of such Person, such condition or covenant has been complied with.

 

Section 14.08               Payments on Business Days.

 

Except as provided pursuant to Section 2.01 pursuant to a Board Resolution, and as set forth in an Officers’ Certificate, or established in one or more indentures supplemental to this Indenture, in any case where the date of maturity of interest or principal of any Security or the date of redemption of any Security shall not be a Business Day, then payment of interest or principal, and premium, if any, may be made on the next succeeding Business Day with the same force and effect as if made on the nominal date of maturity or redemption, and no interest shall accrue for the period after such nominal date.

 

Section 14.09               Conflict with Trust Indenture Act.

 

If and to the extent that any provision of this Indenture limits, qualifies or conflicts with the duties imposed by Sections 310 to 317, inclusive, of the Trust Indenture Act, such imposed duties shall control.

 

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Section 14.10              Counterparts.

 

This Indenture may be executed in any number of counterparts, each of which shall be an original, but such counterparts shall together constitute but one and the same instrument.

 

Section 14.11              Separability.

 

In case any one or more of the provisions contained in this Indenture or in the Securities of any series shall for any reason be held to be invalid, illegal or unenforceable in any respect, such invalidity, illegality or unenforceability shall not affect any other provisions of this Indenture or of such Securities, but this Indenture and such Securities shall be construed as if such invalid or illegal or unenforceable provision had never been contained herein or therein.

 

Section 14.12              Assignment.

 

The Company will have the right at all times to assign any of its rights or obligations under this Indenture to a direct or indirect wholly owned subsidiary of the Company, provided that, in the event of any such assignment, the Company, will remain liable for all such obligations. Subject to the foregoing, the Indenture is binding upon and inures to the benefit of the parties thereto and their respective successors and assigns. This Indenture may not otherwise be assigned by the parties thereto.

 

Section 14.13              FATCA.

 

In order to comply with applicable tax laws, rules and regulations (inclusive of directives, guidelines and interpretations promulgated by competent authorities) in effect from time to time (“Applicable Law”) that a foreign financial institution, or issuer, trustee, paying agent, holder or other institution is or has agreed to be subject to related to the Indenture, the Company agrees to provide to the Trustee sufficient information about holders or other applicable parties and/or transactions (including any modification to the terms of such transactions) that is reasonably requested by the Trustee so the Trustee can determine whether it has tax related obligations under Applicable Law; provided that such information is directly available to and within the possession of the Company and can be provided without material expense.

 

[Signatures begin on the following page]

 

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IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties hereto have caused this Indenture to be duly executed as of the day and year first above written.

 

  DPW HOLDINGS, INC.,
  as Issuer
   
  By:
  Name: Milton C. Ault, III
  Title: Chief Executive Officer

 

Attest:
 
 
By:
Name:
Title:
 
 
    as Trustee
   
  By:
  Name:
  Title:

 

 

Attest:

 

 

By:
Name:
Title:

 

[Signature page to Senior Indenture]

 

 

46

 

 

 

 

 

Exhibit 4.2

 

DPW HOLDINGS, INC.,

 

Issuer

 

and

 

___________________________,

 

Trustee

 

__________________________

 

INDENTURE

 

Dated as of [              ], 2021

__________________________

 

Subordinated Debt Securities

 

   
 

 

CROSS-REFERENCE TABLE1

 

Section of Trust Indenture Act 
of 1939, as amended
  Section of Indenture
     
310(a)     7.09
310(b)     7.08
311(a)     7.13
311(b)     7.13
312(a)     5.01, 5.02(a)
312(b)     5.02(c)
312(c)     5.02(c)
313(a)     5.04(a)
313(b)     5.04(b)
313(c)     5.04(a), 5.04(b)
313(d)     5.04(c)
314(a)     5.03
314(b)     Inapplicable
314(c)     5.03(d), 7.07, 14.07
314(d)     Inapplicable
314(e)     14.07(b)
314(f)     Inapplicable
315(a)     7.01, 7.02(a)
315(b)     Inapplicable
315(c)     7.01(a)
315(d)     7.01(b)
315(e)     6.07
316(a)(1)     6.08
316(a)(2)     Inapplicable
316(b)     6.04
316(c)     8.01
317(a)(1)     6.02
317(a)(2)     6.02(c)
317(b)     4.03
318(a)     14.09
318(b)     Inapplicable
318(c)     14.09

 

                                                             

1 This Cross-Reference Table does not constitute part of the Indenture and shall not have any bearing on the interpretation of any of its terms or provisions.

 

   
 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS2

 

    Page
     
ARTICLE I
DEFINITIONS
     
Section 1.01 Definitions of Terms 1
  Affiliate 1
  Authenticating Agent 1
  Bankruptcy Law 1
  Board of Directors 1
  Board Resolution 1
  Business Day 1
  Certificate 1
  Company 2
  Commission 2
  Corporate Trust Office 2
  Custodian 2
  Default 2
  Deferral Period 2
  Depositary 2
  Electronic Means 2
  Event of Default 2
  Exchange Act 2
  Global Security 2
  Governmental Obligations 2
  herein, hereof and hereunder 3
  Indebtedness 3
  Indenture 3
  Interest Payment Date 3
  Investment Company Act 3
  Officers’ Certificate 3
  Opinion of Counsel 3
  Original Issue Discount Security 3
  Outstanding 3
  Paying Agent 4
  Person 4
  Place of Payment 4
  Predecessor Security 4
  Redemption Date 4
  Redemption Price 4
  Responsible Officer 4
  Securities 5
  Securities Act 5
  Securityholder 5
  Senior Indebtedness 5
  Stated Maturity 5
  Subsidiary 5
  Trustee 5
  Trust Indenture Act 5
  Voting Stock 5
  Yield to Maturity 5

 

                                                             

2 This Cross-Reference Table does not constitute part of the Indenture and shall not have any bearing on the interpretation of any of its terms or provisions.

 

   
 

 

    Page
     
ARTICLE II
DESCRIPTION, TERMS, EXECUTION,REGISTRATION AND EXCHANGE OF SECURITIES
     
Section 2.01 Designation and Terms of Securities 5
Section 2.02 Form of Securities and Trustee’s Certificate 7
Section 2.03 Denominations; Provisions for Payment 7
Section 2.04 Execution and Authentications 8
Section 2.05 Registration of Transfer and Exchange 9
Section 2.06 Temporary Securities 10
Section 2.07 Mutilated, Destroyed, Lost or Stolen Securities 10
Section 2.08 Cancellation 11
Section 2.09 Benefits of Indenture 11
Section 2.10 Authenticating Agent 11
Section 2.11 Global Securities 12
Section 2.12 CUSIP Numbers 12
     
ARTICLE III
REDEMPTION OF SECURITIES AND SINKING FUND PROVISIONS
     
Section 3.01 Redemption 13
Section 3.02 Notice of Redemption 13
Section 3.03 Payment Upon Redemption 13
Section 3.04 Sinking Fund 14
Section 3.05 Satisfaction of Sinking Fund Payments with Securities 14
Section 3.06 Redemption of Securities for Sinking Fund 14
     
ARTICLE IV
CERTAIN COVENANTS
     
Section 4.01 Payment of Principal, Premium and Interest 15
Section 4.02 Maintenance of Office or Agency 15
Section 4.03 Paying Agents 16
Section 4.04 Statement by Officers as to Default 16
Section 4.05 Existence 17
Section 4.06 Payment of Taxes 17
Section 4.07 Waiver of Certain Covenants 17
Section 4.08 Appointment to Fill Vacancy in Office of Trustee 17
Section 4.09 Compliance with Consolidation Provisions 17
     
ARTICLE V
SECURITYHOLDERS’ LISTS AND REPORTS BY THE COMPANY AND THE TRUSTEE
     
Section 5.01 Company to Furnish Trustee Names and Addresses of Securityholders 17
Section 5.02 Preservation of Information; Communications with Securityholders 18
Section 5.03 Reports by the Company 18
Section 5.04 Reports by the Trustee 18
     
ARTICLE VI
REMEDIES OF THE TRUSTEE AND SECURITYHOLDERS ON EVENT OF DEFAULT
     
Section 6.01 Events of Default 19
Section 6.02 Collection of Indebtedness and Suits for Enforcement by Trustee 21
Section 6.03 Application of Moneys Collected 22

 

   
 

 

Section 6.04 Limitation on Suits 22
Section 6.05 Rights and Remedies Cumulative; Delay or Omission Not Waiver 22
Section 6.06 Control by Securityholders 23
Section 6.07 Undertaking to Pay Costs 23
Section 6.08 Waiver of Past Defaults 23

ARTICLE VII

CONCERNING THE TRUSTEE
     
Section 7.01 Certain Duties and Responsibilities of Trustee 23
Section 7.02 Certain Rights of Trustee 24
Section 7.03 Trustee Not Responsible for Recitals or Issuance or Securities 26
Section 7.04 May Hold Securities 26
Section 7.05 Moneys Held in Trust 26
Section 7.06 Compensation and Reimbursement 26
Section 7.07 Reliance on Officers’ Certificate 26
Section 7.08 Disqualification; Conflicting Interests 27
Section 7.09 Corporate Trustee Required; Eligibility 27
Section 7.10 Resignation and Removal; Appointment of Successor 27
Section 7.11 Acceptance of Appointment By Successor 28
Section 7.12 Merger, Conversion, Consolidation or Succession to Business 29
Section 7.13 Preferential Collection of Claims Against the Company 29
 
ARTICLE VIII
CONCERNING THE SECURITYHOLDERS
     
Section 8.01 Evidence of Action by Securityholders 29
Section 8.02 Proof of Execution by Securityholders 30
Section 8.03 Who May be Deemed Owners 30
Section 8.04 Certain Securities Owned by Company Disregarded 30
Section 8.05 Actions Binding on Future Securityholders 30
 
ARTICLE IX
SUPPLEMENTAL INDENTURES
     
Section 9.01 Supplemental Indentures Without the Consent of Securityholders 31
Section 9.02 Supplemental Indentures With Consent of Securityholders 32
Section 9.03 Effect of Supplemental Indentures 32
Section 9.04 Securities Affected by Supplemental Indentures 32
Section 9.05 Execution of Supplemental Indentures 33
 
ARTICLE X
CONSOLIDATION, MERGER, CONVEYANCE, TRANSFER OR LEASE
     
Section 10.01 When the Company May Consolidate, Merge, Etc. 33
     
ARTICLE XI
SATISFACTION AND DISCHARGE
     
Section 11.01 Satisfaction and Discharge of Indenture 33
Section 11.02 Discharge of Obligations 34
Section 11.03 Deposited Moneys to be Held in Trust 34
Section 11.04 Payment of Moneys Held by Paying Agents 34
Section 11.05 Repayment to Company 34

 

   
 

 

ARTICLE XII
IMMUNITY OF INCORPORATORS, STOCKHOLDERS, OFFICERS AND DIRECTORS
     
Section 12.01 No Recourse 35

 

ARTICLE XIII
DEFEASANCE AND COVENANT DEFEASANCE
     
Section 13.01 Company’s Option to Effect Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance 35
Section 13.02 Defeasance and Discharge 35
Section 13.03 Covenant Defeasance 53
Section 13.04 Conditions to Defeasance or Covenant Defeasance 36
Section 13.05 Deposited Money and Government Obligations to be Held in Trust; Miscellaneous Provisions 37
Section 13.06 Reinstatement 37
 
ARTICLE XIV
MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS
     
Section 14.01 Effect on Successors and Assigns 38
Section 14.02 Actions by Successor 38
Section 14.03 Surrender of Company Powers 38
Section 14.04 Notices 38
Section 14.05 Governing Law 39
Section 14.06 Treatment of Securities as Debt 39
Section 14.07 Compliance Certificates and Opinions 39
Section 14.08 Payments on Business Days 39
Section 14.09 Conflict with Trust Indenture Act 39
Section 14.10 Counterparts 40
Section 14.11 Separability 40
Section 14.12 Assignment 40
Section 14.13 FATCA 40
 
ARTICLE XV
SUBORDINATION OF SECURITIES
     
Section 15.01 Agreement to Subordinate 40
Section 15.02 Default on Senior Indebtedness 41
Section 15.03 Liquidation; Dissolution; Bankruptcy 41
Section 15.04 Subrogation 42
Section 15.05 Trustee to Effectuate Subordination 42
Section 15.06 Notice by the Company 42
Section 15.07 Rights of the Trustee; Holders of Senior Indebtedness 43
Section 15.08 Subordination May Not Be Impaired 43

 

   
 

 

INDENTURE, dated as of [            ], 2021, between DPW Holdings, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”), and _________________________________________, as trustee (the “Trustee”):

 

WHEREAS, for its lawful corporate purposes, the Company has duly authorized the execution and delivery of this Indenture to provide for the issuance of unsecured subordinated debt securities, debentures, notes, bonds, or other evidences of indebtedness (hereinafter referred to as the “Securities”), in an unlimited aggregate principal amount to be issued from time to time in one or more series, as provided in this Indenture;

 

WHEREAS, to provide the terms and conditions upon which the Securities are to be authenticated, issued and delivered, the Company has duly authorized the execution of this Indenture; and

 

WHEREAS, all things necessary to make this Indenture a valid agreement of the Company, in accordance with its terms, have been done.

 

NOW, THEREFORE, in consideration of the premises and the purchase of the Securities by the holders thereof, it is mutually covenanted and agreed as follows for the equal and ratable benefit of the holders of Securities:

 

ARTICLE I
DEFINITIONS

 

Section 1.01        Definitions of Terms.

 

The terms defined in this Section (except as in this Indenture otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise requires) for all purposes of this Indenture and of any indenture supplemental hereto shall have the respective meanings specified in this Section and shall include the plural as well as the singular.  All other terms used in this Indenture that are defined in the Trust Indenture Act or that are by reference in the Trust Indenture Act defined in the Securities Act (except as herein otherwise expressly provided or unless the context otherwise requires), shall have the meanings assigned to such terms in said Trust Indenture Act and in said Securities Act as in force at the date of the execution of this instrument.

 

Affiliate” of any specified Person means any other Person, directly or indirectly, controlling or controlled by or under direct or indirect common control with such specified Person.  When used with respect to any Person, “control” means the power, directly or indirectly, to direct or cause the direction of the management and policies of such Person,  whether through the ownership of voting securities, by contract or otherwise; and the terms “controlling” and “controlled” and “under common control with” have meanings correlative to the foregoing.

 

Authenticating Agent” means an authenticating agent with respect to all or any of the series of Securities appointed with respect to all or any series of the Securities by the Trustee pursuant to Section 2.10.

 

Bankruptcy Law” means Title 11, U.S. Code, or any similar federal or state bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization or other law for the relief of debtors.

 

Board of Directors” means the Board of Directors of the Company or any duly authorized committee of such Board.

 

Board Resolution” means a copy of a resolution certified by the Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of the Company to have been duly adopted by the Board of Directors and to be in full force and effect on the date of such certification.

 

Business Day” means, with respect to any series of Securities, any day other than a day on which federal or state banking institutions in the Borough of Manhattan, The City of New York, are authorized or obligated by law, executive order or regulation to close.

 

Certificate” means a certificate signed by the principal executive officer, the principal financial officer or the principal accounting officer of the Company.  The Certificate need not comply with the provisions of Section 14.07.

 

 1 
 

 

Commission” means the Securities and Exchange Commission, from time to time constituted, created under the Exchange Act, or, if at any time after the execution of this instrument such Commission is not existing and performing the duties now assigned to it under the Trust Indenture Act, then the body performing such duties at such time.

 

Company” means DPW Holdings, Inc., a corporation duly organized and existing under the laws of the State of Delaware, and, subject to the provisions of Article X, shall also include its successors and assigns.

 

Corporate Trust Office” means the office of the Trustee at which, at any particular time, its corporate trust business shall be principally administered, which office at the date hereof is located at ______________________________, or such other address as to which the Trustee may give written notice to the Company.

 

Custodian” means any receiver, trustee, assignee, liquidator, sequestrator, custodian or similar official under any Bankruptcy Law.

 

Default” means any event, act or condition that with notice or lapse of time, or both, would constitute an Event of Default.

 

Deferral Period,” with respect to any series of Securities, means any period during which the Company elects to extend the interest payment period on such series of Securities pursuant to Section 4.01(b); provided that a Deferral Period (or any extension thereof) may not extend beyond the Stated Maturity or the Redemption Date of any Security of such series and must end on an Interest Payment Date or, if the Securities are redeemed, on an Interest Payment Date or the Redemption Date for such Securities.

 

Depositary” means, with respect to Securities of any series, for which the Company shall determine that such Securities will be issued as a Global Security, The Depository Trust Company, New York, New York, another clearing agency, or any successor registered as a clearing agency under the Exchange Act, or other applicable statute or regulation, which, in each case, shall be designated by the Company pursuant to either Section 2.01 or Section 2.11.

 

Electronic Means” shall mean the following communications methods:  S.W.I.F.T., e-mail, facsimile transmission, secure electronic transmission containing applicable authorization codes, passwords and/or authentication keys issued by the Trustee, or another method or system specified by the Trustee as available for use in connection with its services hereunder.

 

Event of Default” means, with respect to Securities of a particular series any event specified in Section 6.01 (as may be modified as contemplated by Section 2.01(a)(16)), continued for the period of time, if any, therein designated.

 

Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and any statute successor thereto, in each case as amended from time to time.

 

Global Security” means, with respect to any series of Securities, a Security executed by the Company and delivered by the Trustee to the Depositary or pursuant to the Depositary’s instruction, all in accordance with the Indenture, which shall be registered in the name of the Depositary or its nominee.

 

Governmental Obligations” means securities that are (i) direct obligations of the United States of America for the payment of which its full faith and credit is pledged or (ii) obligations of a Person controlled or supervised by and acting as an agency or instrumentality of the United States of America, the payment of wh